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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hypoxic Drive
CO2 is elevated often so the body loses sensitivity to changes in CO2 so O2 becomes what regulates breathing
-O2 moves from alveoli to vessels
-Moves through a semipermeable membrane
-Depends on:
thickness of membrane
surface area of lungs
Diffusion coefficient
-O2 in air is 21%
Normal Breathing Regulation
Dependent on CO2 levels
Abnormal (adventitous) lung sounds
Crackles (rales)
Pleural Friction
-Fluid deminishes sounds
Pulmonary Disorders
-Atelectasis: inadequate aeration of aveoli (collapsed)
-Emphysema: over extended alveoli w/ air stuck in the lung
-Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchi w/ increased mucous and narrowing of the bronchi
-Pneumonia: inflammation of lung tissue
-Pneumothorax: collapse of the lung
Nasal Cannula
1-2 L/min = 24-30%
3-4 L/min = 31-35%
5-6 L/min = 36-44%
Simple Mask
6-10 L/min = 35-65%
-Requires higher Liter flow to prevent
rebreathing of CO2
-Covers pt's mouth
Partial Rebreather
6-10 L/min = 40-60%
-Mask w/reservoir bag
-Partial amount of exhaled air is mixed w/inspired air
6-10 L/min = 60-100%
-Valve closes during expiration so any exhaled air is not rebreathed
-Bag is filled w/ O2 prior to use
Venturi Mask
-Delivers a fixed amount of O2
-Effective w/ pts w/ COPD as CO2 levels are held to a minimum
Sauna Mask (face tent)
8-12 L/min = 28-100%
-Aersol mask is well tolerated by pts
-Provides humdification
-Provides O2 for post Op pts
-Improves O2 for pts who are able to spontaneously ventilate
-Resistance of expiration to keep air in the lung for a longer period of the time (keeps alveoli open longer)
Crackels (rales)
-Sudden opening of closed airways indicates hypoventilation
-Like rubbing hair strands together
-Will NOT be cleared with coughing
-Low pitched rumbling coarse sounds heard on inhalation and exhalation
-May be cleared with coughing
epiglottis swollen (whistles)
Instrument for checking eyes
Location: Over peripheral lung (at base of lungs)
Sound: soft-intensity, low pitched,
"gental sighing"
Reason: air moving through smaller airways
Characteristics: best heard on inspiration (longer than expiratory phase 5:2 ratio)
Location: Between scapulae and lateral to the sternum at the first and second IC spaces
Sound: Moderate-intensity and moderate pitched "blowing"
Reason: air moving through larger airways (bronchi)
Characteristics: Equal inspiration and expiration phases (1:1 ratio)
Bronchial (tubular)
-Location: Anteriorly over the trachea; not normally heard over lung tissue
-Sound: High pitched, loud "harsh" sounds
Reason: air moving through the trachea
Charactersitics: Louder than vesicular sounds; has short inspiratory phase and long expiratory phase (1:2 ratio)