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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Opening of the nose
Naras or nostrils
first course hairs of the nostrils called???
Bulges that increase surface area in nose called__________
Name the sinus's
Parts of the pharynx and what passes thru????
Nasopharnyx-Just air
Thyroid cartilage is made of what?
Hyaline cartilage (Adams apple)consists of two fused plates of hyaline cartilage and form the anterior wall of the larnyx and give a triangular shape (usually larger in males)
The short passegeway that connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea.And give vertebral location????
The wall of the pharnyx is composed of nine pieces of cartilage.What are they???
thyroid,epiglottis,and cricoid (appear singly)three occur in pairs (arytenoid,cuneiform,and corniculate)
Of the paired cartilages which are the most important?and Why
arytenoid==they influence the positions and the tensions of the vocal folds.
__________muscles of the larnyx connect the cartilages to other structures in the throat ,The __________muscles connect the cartilages to each other.
The ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the bone is Hyoid bone is called__________
thryrohyoid membrane
The__________is a large leaf shaped piece of elastic cartilage that is covered with epithelium.
The broad superior portion of the _______ is unattached and is free to move up and down like a trap door.
Elevation of the _______ widens to receive food or drink:Elevation of the larnyx causes the __________ to move down and form a lid over the ________,closing it off.
upper respiratory tract is above ________-and lower respiratory tract is below__________.
vocal cords
skin,nasal bones +cartilage lined with_______
mucous membrane
Nose: roof is made of _____and floor is made of _____.Internal nares(_______) are openings to ________.boney swelling or conchae on lateral walls.
ethmoid,hard palate,choanae,pharnyx
the _________is a muscular tube 5 inches long hanging from skulland is made of sleletal muscle +mucous membrane
the pharnyx extends from internal nares to _________._________(lymphatic tissue) in the walls protects entryway into body
cricoid cartilege,tonsils
3 regions of pharnyx are_________,_______,_________-
adenoids also called______-
pharyngeal tonsil
Nasopharynx (from choanae to soft palate)is made of __________ _______ ______ __________with goblet
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
oropharnyx:runs from_____ to ________.the opening from mouth into oropharynx is called____________.________tonsils found in side walls ,_________tomsil found on tongue.lined with ________ ______epithelium.
soft palate to epiglottis,fauces,palatine,lingual,stratified squamous
laryngopharnyx extends from _________to______cartilage.lined with stratified squamous epi.
epiglottis to cricoid
Adams apple made of _________cartilage
leaf shaped elastic cartilage that covers glottis during swallowing is called_____________.
thyroid ,,,epiglottis
ring of cartilage cattached to top of trachea is called __________.pair of _________ cartilages sit on ___________many muscles responsible for their movement and partially buried in vocal folds (true__________)
cricoid,arytenoid,vocal chords
vocal chords :_________vocal chords or__________ found above vocal________ or true vocal chords
false,ventricular folds,folds
true vocal cords attach to ________cartilage
opening and closing of the vocalfolds occurs during _________ and __________.true vocal cords contain both ______muscle and an ________ligament.when air is pushed past tight ligament sound produced .tighter lig ________pitch
breathing ,spheech,skeletal,elastic,higher
whispering produced by forcing air through almost closed _________
rima glottidis
trachea:size is 5" and1"dia. Extends from larnyx to____________,anterior to the esophagus
Layers of trachea:
__________=pseudostratified columner with cilia._________=loose connective tissue and seromucous glands,___________=16 to 20 incomplete rings open side facing esophagus contains trachealis(________)muscle.
mucosa,submucosa,hyaline cartilage,smooth
trachia :internal ridge on last ring called ______________binds it to other organs
carina adventitia
trachea is lined with____ ___ __ ____.
ciliated pseudostratified columner epithelium
_______bronchi supply each lung,______bronchi supply each lobe(3right +2 left),_________bronchi supply each bronchopulmonary segment
as pass deeper into lungs epithellium changes from____________to____________
pseudostratified ciliated columnar, to nonciliated simple cuboidal
__________and _________release epinephrine that relaxes smooth muscle and dilates airway.inhale mist to relax airway smooth muscle is called _________
symphathetic,adrenal gland ,nebulization therapy
top of lung called_________bottom called_______-the rib surface called______,oblique+ horizontal fissure in ____ lun makes 3 lobes.oblique in left 2 lobes
iflammation of pleural cavity called _____
pleuresy or pleuritis
excessesive fluid in pleural cavity called ______
pleural effusion
left lung contains a concavity for heart called
cardiac noth
there are______tertiary bronchi ineach lung
each bronchiopulmonary segment of the lungs has many small compartments called _________each of which is wrapped in ____________tissue and contains a ___________vessel,an arteriole ,venule,and a branch from a terminal bronchiole.
lobules,elasic connective,lymphatic
as th resperiatory bronchioles penetrate more deeply into lungs the epithelium changes from ________ to _________. Respiratory bronchials,subdivide into _______.25 orders of branching.
s.cuboidals.squamous,alveolar ducts.
alveolar ducts surrounded by _________.___________is 2 or more alveolu sharing a common opening
alveolar sacs,alveolar sacs
cell types of the alveoli are Type 1:s. squamous where _________occurs.Type 2:alveolar cells (septal cells) free surface has _______,secrete alveolar fluid containing _________.alveolar dust cells have ___________remove debris
gas exchange ,microvilli,surfactant,wandering macrophages
also present in the lungs are _______ that produce reticular and elastic fibers
alveolar capillary membrane is ______thick ,4 layers are alveolar wall,alve. ________basement membrane,_______basement membrane, _________cells of cap.
1/2 micron, epithelial wall type ! and 2 cells,epithelial,capillary,endothelial
the lungs receive blood via 2 sets of arteries pulmonary and __________.return is by4 pulmonary veins thatr dump into the _________
bronchial,left atrium
vasoconstriction in respose to hypoxia diverts pulmonary blood to more ventilated areas of lungs and is called ___________
ventilation-perfusion coupling
during forced breathing _______<_______and _______muscles assist
sternocliedomatoid, scalene, and pectoralis minor
injuries to chest wall that cause air to enter interpleural space called _____
the detergent like substance called_______that is produced by type 2 alveolarcells lowers alv. surface tension and is incoplete in premature babies
some diseases that reduce copliance are____,_____ and_____
tuberculosis,pulmonary endema,paralysis
________=normal breathin
________=temporary cessation of breathing
_______=labored breathing
_______=rapid breathing
diaphramatic breathing and costal breathing
at rest a normal human breaths _______per minute and tidal volume is 500ml
the deviced used to measure the vol. of air exchange is called a __________/.
the ____________rate is the volume of air per minute that reaches the alveoli 350 ml for each breath at rest (normal)
alveolar ventilation
additional inhaled air s called ______
inspiratory reserve volume
the volume that can;t leave the lungs is called _______and it is about _______.
residual volume,1200ml
according to _________each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present,
daltons law
__________law states that the quanity of a gas that will dislve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas + its soluability coeffient.
henry's law