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### 8 Cards in this Set

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 Alveolar Gas Equation PAO2 = FlO2 x (Pb - PH2O) - PaCO2/R R = respiratory quotient is generally about 0.8 Pb (atm) = 760mmHg PH2O = 47mmHg (water moisture in mouth) FlO2 = 21% if not augmented by supplement This equation estimates the Alveolar O2 concentration from the measurable arterial O2 levels Bohr Equation (Estimate Dead Space) Vd/Vt = (PACO2 - PECO2) / (PACO2) PACO2 is about equal to PaCO2. This is the case for CO2 but NOT O2 PECO2 - the expired CO2 Uses CO2 washout to measure indirectly the volume of the lungs Alveolar Ventilation PACO2 = PaCO2 = V'CO2 / (K*V'A) V'A = alveolar ventilation is indirectly related to PaCO2 THis equation is important because it show how arterial CO2 is indirectly related to alveolar ventilation double V'A and halve PaCO2 Minute Ventilate Minute ventilation = Resp rate * tidal volume Thus there are 2 ways to maintain the ventilation needed. - alter resp rate - alter tidal volume Fick Equation Flow Gas = [Area*(MW^0.5)*Solubility*Driving Pressure ] / (membrane thickness) - Solubility (Higher = better flow) this is CO2 - Driving Pressure (O2 = 100 to 40 & CO2 = 40 to 45) Each of these variables are manipulated for the lung to maximize gas transport Laplaces Law (justify surfactant) Pressure = 2T / R R - radius T - tension in the walls Thus the small radii alveoli will require higher pressure to keep patent with equal tension Compliance (elastance) Compliance = dVolume / dPressure Elastance is the inverse Something compliant will increase volume easily for a given pressure. Something with high elastance will require more pressure to increase its volume (it will be less compliant) Respiratory Quotient R = CO2 output / O2 input R is usually 0.8 R changes based on anaerobic or aerobic metabolism High fat diet will decrease CO2 output and the respiratory quotient