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60 Cards in this Set

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Tachyphylaxis
rapidly decreasing response to a drug following administration of the initial dose
What do Beta agonists do?
Causes smooth muscle relaxation resulting in dilation of bronchial passages
atopic
hereditary disorder- develop immediate allergic reactions to pollen, food, dander, asthma, etc.
efficacy
therapeutic effect of a given intervention is acceptable.
Hypersensitivity
undesirable (sometimes damaging or fatal)reactions produced by the normal immune system
What are the most abundant catecholamines?
epinephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrin(noradrenaline) dopamine
pharmacognosy
is the study of medicines from natural sources
pharmacogenetics
study or clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs
therapeutics
the art of treating disease with drugs
toxicology
study of toxic substances and thier pharmacological actions including antidotes and posion.
pharmacokinetics
determination of the fate of substances administered to living organisms
pharmacodynamics
studing the reactions between drugs and living organisms
list the 5 names of a drug
chemical, code, official, generic and brand (trade) name.
what is a drug code name?
name the manufacturer assign to it while it was still an experimental chemical, cuz it showed potential
orphan drug
drugs not considered to be commercially viable because of rareness of disease.
what do adrenergic agents do?
bronchodilation
what do anticholinergic agents do?
relaxation of cholinergic induced bronchoconstriction improving ventilator flow rates in asthma and copd
what do mucoactive agents do?
lower viscosity of mucus and promote clearance of secretion
what do corticosteroids do?
reduce inflammatation in the airways of asthmatics and patients with rhinitis
what do antiasthmatic agents do?
inhibit chemical mediators of inflammation in asthmatics
what do exogenous surfactants do?
restore normal lung compliance in respiratory distress syndrome of newborns
what are the advantages of oral inhalation of meds?
doses are smaller, less side effects, rapid effects, convenience
what are the 3 phases in the course of a drug's action?
administration phase pharmacokinetic phase pharmacodynamic phase
what does MDI stand for?
metered dose inhaler
what are the 5 categoies of drug administration?
enteral (GI tract), parenteral (injection), inhalation, transdermal (systemic), topical (local)
What are the 3 most common options for injecting a drug.
intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous
What is pharmacokinetics?
what the body does to a drug
What is pharmacodynamics?
what a drug does to the body
name the 5 barriers to drug absorption in the lining of the lower respiratory tract.
1 airway surface liquid, 2 epithelial cells, 3 basement membrane, 4 interstitium, 5 capillary vascular network
What is Pinocytosis?
like phagocytosis, except non-selective. Primarily used for the absorption of ECF.
what do adrenergic agents do?
bronchodilation
what do anticholinergic agents do?
relaxation of cholinergic induced bronchoconstriction improving ventilator flow rates in asthma and copd
what do mucoactive agents do?
lower viscosity of mucus and promote clearance of secretion
what do corticosteroids do?
reduce inflammatation in the airways of asthmatics and patients with rhinitis
what do antiasthmatic agents do?
inhibit chemical mediators of inflammation in asthmatics
what do exogenous surfactants do?
restore normal lung compliance in respiratory distress syndrome of newborns
what are the advantages of oral inhalation of meds?
doses are smaller, less side effects, rapid effects, convenience
what are the 3 phases in the course of a drug's action?
administration phase pharmacokinetic phase pharmacodynamic phase
what does MDI stand for?
metered dose inhaler
what are the 5 categoies of drug administration?
enteral (GI tract), parenteral (injection), inhalation, transdermal (systemic), topical (local)
What are the 3 most common options for injecting a drug.
intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous
What is pharmacokinetics?
what the body does to a drug
What is pharmacodynamics?
what a drug does to the body
name the 5 barriers to drug absorption in the lining of the lower respiratory tract.
1 airway surface liquid, 2 epithelial cells, 3 basement membrane, 4 interstitium, 5 capillary vascular network
What is Pinocytosis?
like phagocytosis, except non-selective. Primarily used for the absorption of ECF.
First pass effect
(only applies to orally taken meds)
amount of a drug that get matabolized by the liver before it gets into systemic cirulation
what is clearance?
a measure of the bodies ability to rid itself of a drug, often expressed as total systemic or plasm clearance
What is the unit of measurment that clearance is usually expressed in?
L/hr
What are time-plasma curves?
a graph of the concentration of a drug in the plasma over a period of time.
inhaled aerosols are deposited on the surface of the airways and thus are a form of __ administered drug.
topically
structure activity relation
matching a drug molecule with a receptor or enzyme in the body based on structural similarity.
antagonist
a drug or chemical that is able to bind to a receptor (has affinity) but causes no response (zero efficacy)
agonist
binds to a corresponding receptor (has affinity) and initiates a cellular effect (has affinity)
chemical antagonism
direct chemical interaction between drug and biologic mediator which inactivates the drug.
functional antagonism
when two drugs each produce and effect and the two effects cancel each other out.
competitive antagonism
binds to a receptor but fails to activate it and fights with any agonist that come for the receptor.
Drug synergism
drugs interact in ways that enhance or magnify effects, or side effects, of those drugs
drug additivity
2 drugs act on the same recptors and the combined effect is the simple linear sum of both drugs
drug potentiation
when two drugs are taken together and one of them intensifies the action of the other.
name 6 drug sources
plant, animal, living organisms, dna, minerals and chemicals