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69 Cards in this Set

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what is hemopytsis?
coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract
what does HEENT stand for?
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat
What does JVD stand for?
Jugular Venous Distention
What is hepatojugular reflex?
An elevation of venous pressure visible in the jugular veins
What is Sensorium?
generic term for the intellectual and cognitive functions. Receive, process and interpret sensory stimuli.
What is Polycythemia?
a condition in which there is a net increase in the total number of red blood cells in the body.
What is a Pulmonary embolism?
is blockage of the pulmonary artery (or one of its branches)
What does COPD stand for?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Wht is dyspnea?
shortness of breath
A COPD management program includes these four components
assuss and monitor disease, reduce risk factors, manage stable COPD, and manage exacerbations.
What is the FEV1 for stage IV COPD?
<30% predicted or FEV1 <50% perdicted plus chronic respiratory failure.
FEV1/FVC for all 4 stages of COPD?
FEV1/FVC <70%
What is the FEV1 for stage I COPD?
> or equal to 80% predicted
Goals of COPD management include:
relieve symptoms, prevent disease progression, improve excercise tolerance and health status, prevent and treat complication and exacerbations, reduce mortality
What is a bullectomy?
a surgical procedure where bulla are removed.
What is the FEV1/FVC ratio in normal adults?
Between 70% and 80%.
What does FEV1 stand for?
Forced expired volume in one second.
What % of cases of COPD are due to smoking?
80% to 90%
Emphysema is defined histologically as
the enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, with destruction of their walls
Etiology
is the study of causation, used to refer to the study of why things occur
Name the 4 stages of COPD?
mild, moderate, severe and very severe.
What is oxygenation failure?
an arterial oxygen tension (PaCO2) of less than 60 mm Hg
What is Orthopnea?
increased respiratory distress when the patient is lying down or the chest is compressed
What does the V and Q stand for in V/Q mismatch?
Alveolar ventilation (V) pulmonary perfusion (Q)
What are the ventilatory failure?
drugs, brain diseases, spinal cord or thoracic cage abnormalities, muscular diseases, airway obstruction.
What does CPAP stand for?
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
What does PEEP stand for?
Positive end-expiratory pressure
What is Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)?
the amount of pressure above atm pressure in the airway at the end of the expiratory cycle in mechanical ventilation
What is CPAP?
the amount of pressure above atm pressure in the airway at the end of the expiratory cycle in spontaneously breathing
What is FIO2?
fraction of inspired oxygen in a gas.
What is the FIO2 of normal room air?
0.21 (21%).
oxygenation failure vs. ventilatory failure
oxygenation failure= not enough O2 (<60 mm Hg)
ventilatory failure= too much CO2 (>45 mm Hg)
What is Hypercapnia?
also known as CO2 Poisoning, a condition where there is too much CO2 in the blood
What is Hypoxia?
a shortage of oxygen in the body
What is anoxia?
when there is no oxygen available at all in the blood.
hyperoxia
Oxygen toxicity. The opposite condition of hypoxia, an excess of oxygen in body tissues
Ataxic respiration
abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by complete irregularity of breathing,
Which lung has the lingula?
left
Small bronchioles consist of the ___ and ___.
terminal and respiratory bronchioles
acinus
berry-shaped termination of an exocrine gland, where the secretion is produced.
Name 2 heart complications connected to hypoxia.
dysrhythmias and decreased contractility
HYPOXEMIA VS. HYPOXIA
HYPOXEMIA= low O2 in blood
HYPOXIA= low O2 in tissue
Hypercarbia
to have more than normal CO2 (Carbon dioxide) levels in the blood
What is the most common pulmonary disorder?
COPD
How many americans die from smoking every year?
440,000
Smoking cuts your life span by...
13.2 years for men
14.5 years for women
name 7 health risks of smoking.
cataracts, premature birth weight, pneumonia, COPD, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardovascular disease, cancer
Name 10 types of cancer caused by smoking.
lung, bladder, mouth, stomach, cervix, larynx, esophagus, throat, pancreas, kidney
Describe the pathophysilolgy of chronic bronchitis.
hypertrophy of mucus glands, increase in # of goblet cells, inflamed bronchial walls, loss of cilia, mucus plugging
hypoxia can effect RBC's how?
chronic hypoxia can lead to an elevated RBC count.
An elevated WBC count can be an indicator of what?
infection
What does ABG stand for?
Arterial Blood Gas
What does CXR stand for?
Chest X-ray
What are the two main goals in the treatment of Chronic Bronchitis?
Treat any superimposed acute medical problems and slow progress of the disease.
What is Furosemide (brand name: Lasix)?
diuretic used in the treatment of CHF and edema; it removes fluid
pulmonary emphysema is defined in anatomic terms as...
permanent abnormal enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles associated with destructive changes of alveolar walls.
Diaphoresis
excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions.
Parenchyma (per-in-k-ma)
the functional parts of an organ in the body. The parenchyma of the lungs is the alveoli.
Erythrocytosis
an excess of erythrocytes.
(Polycythemia)
What are the 4 components of COPD mamagement?
assess and monitor disease, reduce risk factors, manage stable COPD (education, pharm, non-pharm) and manage exacerbations
COPD patients are at increased risk for...
heart attack, osteoporosis, resiratory infection, depression, diabetes, lung cancer
How many americans have emphaysema?
2 million
Hypochloremia
an abnormally depleted level of the chloride ion in the blood
HCO3
Sodium bicarbonate
treatment for mild COPD
short acting bronchodilator, stop smoking, flu vaccine, exercise, educate patient
treatment for moderate COPD
long acting bronchodilator, pulmonary rehabilitation
treatment for severe COPD
inhaled glucocorticosteroids, treatment of complications
treatment for very severe COPD
long term O2 therapy, lung volume reduction surgery or lung transplantation
Which side of the heart is the pulmonary trunk attached to?
Right side