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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes up the protective anatomy of the respiratory system
cilia, mocociliary blanket, and lotis/laryngeal muscles
What is a lobule?
smallest functional unit of the lung, terminal respiratory bronchiole, alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts
What is the protective anatomy of the lobule?
lymphatic system and macrophages
What is the pleura?
lining of thoracic cavity that encases lungs with a serous fluid that seperated the layers
What is a pleural effusion?
a painfal inflamation of the pleura
What type of infection if the common cold?
viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
What are the modes of transmission for a cold?
person to person or via fomites
What is the incuabtion period of the common cold?
2-5 days, most contagios first 2-3 days
Name 3 viruses that can cause a cold?
rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenze virus
What is the treatment for the common cold?
OTC remedies, fluids, chicken soup
How can you prevent the common cold?
hand washing
What is sinusitis?
an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses which results in blocked sinuses and infectio
What are the 3 levels of sinusitis?
acute = 2-3 weeks
subacute = 3 weeks to 3 months, causes reversible changes to epithelium
chronic = lasting greater than 3 months, results in irreversible change of the mucosa
What causes sinusitis?
infection from bacteria, viruses, or fungi, anything that causes obstruction, impairs ciliary function, results in xs mucous production, or compromises the immune system
What moves mucous and debris into nasal cavity?
What facilitates microbe growth in sinuses?
low oxygen content
What type of bacteria causes acute sinusitis?
H. influenzae, S. pneumonia
What causes chronic sinusitis?
H. influenzae, S. pneumonia, and anaerobes
What causes sinusitis in HIV+ patients?
H. influenze, S. pneumonia, anaerobes, gram negative organisms, and fungi
What causes nosocomial sinusitis?
S. aureus, pseudomonas species, and klebsiella species
What are the symptoms of acute sinusitis?
cold-like symptoms, facial pain and pressure, purulent nasal discharge, and decresed smell
What are the signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis?
postnasal drip, chronic cough, loss of smell, bad breath, and headache
What are complications of sinusitis?
intracranial abscesses, meningitis, orbital involvement
How is sinusitis diagnosed?
symptom history and physical exam, nasal endoscopyis also indicated in persons who don't respond to therapy as expected
What is the treatment for sinusitis?
anti-microbial, decongestants, corticosteroids, and surgery to correct obstruction
What is influenza?
a viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory tract
Who has the higest rates of infection of the flu?
In what population are the rates of of serious illness and death from flu highest?
65 years and older
What virus causes influenza
orthomyxoviridae family, SS RNA
What are the three types of flu virus?
A, B, and C, but only A and B cause epidemics
How is type A influenza classified?
by surface antigens
H = hemagglutinin
What is antigenic drift?
H and N antigens vary slightly each year causing new strains of infection
What is antigenic shift?
change in H and/or N antigen resulting in new protein that is completely unrecognized by the immune system, causes pandemic
Which type of virus has more shift and drift?
type A
How many strains of flu generally occur yearly?
3, two type A and one B
What are risk factors for flu?
elderly, chronic illness, immunosuppression, close contact
What is the incubation period for flu?
1-4 days
When is flu infectious?
from 1 day before onset of symptoms to 5 days after onset
What are the early symptoms of flu?
fever, chills, malaise, muscle aches, headache, profuse watery discharge, nonproductive cough, and sore throat
What are the three types of flu infection?
uncomplicated rhinotrachetitis, viral pneumonia, respiratory viral infection complicated by bacterial infection
What is uncomplicated rhinotracheitis?
upper respiratory tract infection and inflammation with necrosis and shedding of ciliated and serous mucous cells, peaks in 3-5 days, resolves in 7-10 days
What are complications of uncomplicated rhinotracheitis?
sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, and bacterial pneumonia
What are complications of viral flu complicated by bacterial infection?
confusion and death
What are additional symptoms of complicated flu infection?
chest pain, purulent sputum, hypoxemia, and dyspnea
What bacterial infection can cause complicated flu infection?
sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, and pneumonia
What is caused when small droplets bypass upper lung and cause rapid infection in lower lung?
viral pneumonia
How is flu diagnosed?
symptoms and antigen detection tests
How is flu prevented?
How is flu treated?
-limit infection to upper respiratory tract
-supportive (fluids,nutrition, rest, keep warm)
-antiviral agents
-treat bacterial infection
What is pneumonia?
inflammation of the lung parenchyma (alveoli and bronchioles)
What is the 6th leading cause of death from infection?
What causes pneumonia?
bacteria, virus, fungi, fumes, and aspiration
What are the routes of entry of organisms that cause pneumonia?
-inhalation from ambient air
-aspiration from upper airway
-direct spread from contiguous sites
-spread from blood
How do organisms cause pneumonia?
enter lower airway, evade host defenses, and cause infection
What are the normal host defenses against pneumonia?
-glottic and cough reflexes
-mucociliary blanket
-pulmonary macrophages
Where do the bacteria in bacterial pneumonia multiply?
the alveoli
What does bacterial pneumonia cause?
infammation and accumulation of fluid and debris in the alveoli
What are the symptoms of bacterial pneumonia?
chills, fever, malaise, purulent sputum, and elevated WBC's
What occurs with viral or mycoplasmal pneumonia?
patchy inflammatory changes confined to alveolar septum and interstitium of lung
What is community aquired pneumonia?
caused by infectious organisms found in the community, begins outside of hospital or w/i 48 hours after admission
What is hospital acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia?
infections from organisms found in hospital or nursing homes, not present or incubating on admission
What are symptoms of community acquired pneumonia?
fever, malaise, productive cough, purulent sputum, SOB, increased respiratory rate, and respiratory failure
How is community acquired pneumonia diagnosed?
S&S, chest x-ray WBC elevation, and sputum culture
How is community acquired pneumonia treated?
ATS guidelines
How are community acquired pneumonia patients categorized?
severity of illnedd, presence of co-exisitng disease, age, adn need for hospitalization
Why is hospital acquired pneumonia more serious?
-pathogens more likely to be resident
-patients more liekly to be compromised
-2nd most common hospital infection
What is Legionnaire's disease?
a type of pneumonia
What is PCP?
a special type fo pneumonia that is a hallmark of AIDS patients
What is the number 1 cause of death from a single infectious agents in developign countries?
What populations have and increased risk of tuberculosis?
HIV patients, infants, and elderly
What organism causes tuberculosis?
mycobacterium tuberculosis
-aerobic bacteria
-waxy outer capsule resistant to destruction
What is secondary tuberculosis?
reactivation or reinfection in a previously infected patient
What is the hallmark of TB?
granulomas in the lung tissue
How does a person contract TB?
from inhaling droplets expelled by an infectious person
What must be contained in the droplet for infection to occur?
tubercule bacillus
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is TB?
Type 4 hypersensitivity
Why is there no early immune response to TB?
because there are no surface antigens
Where does the tubercule bacillus settle?
the bronchus and alveolus
What happens after macrophages engulf the tubercule bacillus?
divide for 2-12 weeks, macrophages present to T-cells and cell mediated immune response develops
What is the function of a granuloma?
It walls of tuberculosis infection in a healthy person
What does the tuberculin skin test show?
that a person has been exposed to Tb
How does secondary tuberculosis occur?
reinfection from an inhaled droplet or reactivation of previously healed lesion
What results after secondary TB infection?
cavitation and bronchial dissemination
What are the S&S of secondary tuberculosis?
low-grade fever, night sweat, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, cough, dry then productive with purulent blood tinged sputum
How is TB diagnosed?
tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray, sputum culture with acid fast stain, bronchcscopy
How is TB treated?
antimucobacterial drugs, over at least 6 months with frequent changes in antinfective treatment
What is the BCG vaccine?
a preventitive TB vaccine