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79 Cards in this Set

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respirations
~overall process by which an exchange takes place btwn atmospher & cells of the body
ventilation
~movement of air in and out of airways, intermittently replenishing the O2 and removing CO2 4m lungs
COPD
Etio
~group of conditions assoc w/chronic obstruc of air flow enter/exit lungs
pulmonary emphysema
S/S
~SOB
~diff exhaling
~purse-lip breathing
~wheezing
~crackles
~barrel chest
~shallow rapid resp
~hypoxia
~productive cough
~ABG incr chronic resp acidosis
pulmonary emphysema
NI
~breathing by sitting up/leaning 4wd
~freq rest periods
~pulm toilet
~nebulizer
~O2 @ low flow (2-3L)
pulmonary emphysema
Teaching
~avoid crowds
~purse-lip breathing
~diaphragm breathing
~record 1st signs of URI
pulmonary emphysema
home care
~dust w/wet cloth
~avoid powerful odors
~avoid extreme temps
~no fireplace
~no pets
~no feather pillows
Chronic Bronchitis (Blue Bloater)
Etio
~excessive mucous secretions w/in the airways & recurrent cough
~inflam of the lining of the bronchi
~caused by smoking, bact infec
~bronchi fill with mucus and grow narrower
Chronic Bronchitis (Blue Bloater)
S/S
~cough
~dyspnea on exertion
~dyspnea (@ rest)
~hypoxemia
~crackles
~ronchi
Chronic Bronchitis (Blue Bloater)
NI
~prev/avoid smoking
~decr irritants
~incr humidity
~bronchodilators
~chest PT
~postural drainage (trendelenburg/vibrations)
~breathing techs
Asthma
Etio
~antigen-antibody triggered by food, drugs, or inhaled particles
~condition of abnormal bronchial hyperreactivity 2 certain substances
~allergies cause inflam lead 2 spasms
Asthma
S/S
~severe sudden dyspnea
~use of accessory muscles
~diff breathing supine
~diaphoresis
~anxious
~wheezing
~cyanotic in lips
Asthma
NI
~calm/stay w/pt
~decr SOB
~high fowlers
~hydrate by IV
~O2
status asthmaticus
~attack lasting more than 24hrs is a med emergency
~could lead 2 death
~NI: high fowler's
~monitor V/S
~aminophyline immediately
Cor Pulmonale
Etio
~increase in bulk of the right ventricle of the heart
~R side enlarged/works harder b/c lungs are congested
~CO2 backs up/accum in R side
~R ventricular hypertrophy secondary 2 dz of the lungs may/not be accompanied by heart failure
Cor Pulmonale
NI
~bed rest
~monitor O2 therapy
~low Na diet
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis
Etio
~near comatose state 2nd 2 high CO2 d/t chronic retention
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis
NI
~thoracentesis
~assist MD w/chest tube
~avoid high concentration of O2
~2L NC O2
~monitor O2 therapy response
Pneumothorax
Etio
~collection of air/fluid in pleural space
Pneumothorax
Cause
~trauma
~thoracic surg
~CL insertion
Pneumothorax
S/S
~sudden sharp chest pain
~sudden sob w/violent attempts 2 breath
~hypotension
~tachycardia
~anxiety
~diaphoresis
~restlessness
Pneumothorax
NI
~remain w/client
~stay calm
~high fowler's
~V/S
~mon 4 shock
~chest tube
closed chest drainage
purpose
~remove fluid/air 4m pleural space
~reest normal neg pressure in pleural space
~promote reexpansion of the lungs
closed chest drainage
one bottle system
~water seal & drainage in the same bottle
~empyema
closed chest drainage
two bottle system
~air & fluid
~pneumothorax, thoracic surg
closed chest drainage
three bottle system
~suction control
~pneumothorax, thoracic surg
closed chest drainage
NI
~know purpose of bottle system
~chest xray 2 assess placement of chest tube
~doc character of drainage
~keep bottled below heart level
~make sure tube isnt kinked
~bubbling/fluctuation (normal)
~reest normal neg pressure
~mon resp, resp distress, chest xray
~pos semi/high fowlers
tuberculosis
cause
~mycobacterial organism
~nonmotile, aerobic
~killed by heat or UV light
~harbors in dark, cool, O2 places (lungs)
tuberculosis
etio
~communicable, infectious, inflam dz that can occur in any part of the body
~alcohol abuse prone b/c low resistance
tuberculosis
risk factors
~overcrowded
~poor living conditions
~poor nutritional status
~prev infec
~alcohol abuse (low immune sys)
~close contact w/infectious person
tuberculosis
S/S
~productive cough w/sputum
~crackles
~dyspnea
~hemoptysis
~night sweats
~wt loss
~anorexia
~vomit
~indigestion
~pallor
tuberculosis
dx tests
~skin: mantoux test
~sputum: acid-fast bacilus
~chest xray: infiltration
~hx/exam: living conditions, family hx
~fasting gastric analysis
fasting gastric analysis
~insert NG tube 2 aspirate sputum & send 2 lab
~children do not ocuhg & sputum goes 2 stomach
tuberculosis
chemo meds
~ethambutol
~rifampin
~isonizid (INH)
~pyridioxine (B6)
~streptomycin
pneumonia
etio
~secretions on alveoli
~inflam of lungs caused by infectious agents
~low O2, high CO2
pneumonia
causes
~bacteria
~viral
~aspiration
~inhalation of irritating fumes
pneumonia
risk factors
~elderly
~infants
~alcohol abusers
~post-op clients
~pts w/viral infections
pneumonia
S/S
~night sweats
~sudden onset of chills
~fever
~cough (dry to rusty colored sputum)
~dyspnea
~pallor
~tachypnea
~tachycardia
~pseudo: smelly, green/yellow drainage, too much suctioning
pneumonia
NI
~mantoux test (read 48-72hrs)
~admins drugs
~bed rest
~check 4 allergies
bronchiectasis
etio
~narrow airway
~dz of bronchi categorized by chronic dilation & destruction of bronchial elasticity
~begins in childhood secondary 2 decr resp tract infect which develops as a complication of the measles, whooping cough, or flu
bronchiectasis
S/S
~lg amt of thick purulent sputum
~severe cough
~fetid breath b/c of accumulated secretions
~hemoptysis
~paroxysmal coughing
bronchiectasis
NI
~cough & deep breath
~nebulizer
~bed rest
~antimacrobial
lobectomy
~removal of only one lobe
~reason:TB, abcess
~POST:chest tube
segmentectomy
~removal of a segment of a loobe
~reason: infect
~POST: chest tube
wedge resection
~removal of a small portion of the lung tissue
~reason: infec
~POST:chest tube
AIDS
etio
~infectious dz categ by severe deficit in cellular immune function
~human immunodeficiency virus
~CD4/T4/WBC cells decr
AIDS
high risk behaviors
~unprotected sex w/infected partner
~IV drug abusers
~needles
~blood transfusions before 1985
~babies w/infected mothers
AIDS
s/s
~wt loss
~lymphadenopathy
~leukopenia
~diarrhea
~fatigue
~night sweats
opportunistic infections
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
~major source of death
~S/S:cough, progressive SOB, low grade fever
opportunistic infections
kaposi's sarcoma
~purple-red raised lesion of internal skin
opportunistic infections
candidiasis
~fungal infec in mouth
~dont eat b/c painful
opportunistic infections
herpes viruses
~type 2 (genital/perirectal)
~cytomegalovirus (CMV)
AIDS
NI
~resp support
~prev spread of infec
~health teaching
~safe sex
~handwashing
~protective isolation
chest physiotherapy
etio
~percussion & vibration over thorax to loosen secretion in affected areas of the lungs
chest physiotherapy
NI
~keep layer of material btwn hands/skin
~stop if pain occurs
postural drainage
etio
~use of gravity 2 drain secretion 4m lungs & can be combined w/chest PT
~best time done 1hr b4 meals or 2hrs after meals
postural drainage
NI
~proper positioning
~stop if becomes cyanotic
~position for 5-20mins
postural drainage
C/I
~IICP
~unstable V/S
pulmonary toilet
~done after surgery
~cough
~deep breathing
~chest PT
~turn/position
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB)
etio
~delivery of aerosolized meds to resp tree by pos pressure
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB)
adverse effects
~vertigo
~HA
~anxiety
~cardiac arrythmias
~pneumothorax
using inhalers
~shake inhaler
~remove cap
~breathe deeply O&O thru mouth
~insert mouthpiece/form tight seal w/lips
~with index finger, depress top while inhaling slowly
~remove inhaler/hold breath as long as poss
~exhale & wait 1-2mins b4 next dose
suctioning
indications
~client is unable 2 raise secretion after coughing or chest PT
~also obtain a sputum sample
suctioning
procedure
~sterile tech
~lub cath b4 insertion
~hyperO2 pt
~advance cath
~w/drawl cath while applying intermittent suctioning & rotate cath
~wait 3mins b4 next suction
suctioning
adverse effects
~hypoxia
~arrhythmia
~bronchospasm
~infection
emphysema
etio
~alveoli doesnt expand
~O2/CO2 doesnt fully ventilate
~low O2, high CO2
emphysema
NI
~no feather dusters/pillows
~avoid lysols, clorox, bleach
tuberculosis
teaching
~can be cured w/drug therapy
~drugs taken in combo w/others 2 avoid bacterial resistance
~drugs taken same time qD on empty stomach
~6-12mo
~yearly check-ups
~good nutrition
pneumonia
meds
~penicillin (assess allergies)
~tetracyclin
~erythromycin
~cephalosporin
AIDs
NI
~standard precautions
~protective isolation
~lymphadenopathy
~resp support
~prev spread of infec
~health teaching
~safe sex
~handwashing
AIDs
meds
~azidothymidine AZT/zidovudine
~intaferon (rofem)
~pentamidine (pentam)
chest physiotherapy
meds
~albuterol
~bronkosol
~isuprel
pulmonary emphysema
etio
~pink puffer
~incr in size of distal air spaces w/loss of alveolar walls & elastic recoils of the lungs
~alveoli becomes rigid, no elasticity
postural drainage
~trendelenburg pos
~vibrations to break up secretions
tuberculosis
sputum test
~get 1st sample in AM b4 breakfast
~15mL
pneumonia
causes - bacteria
~strep: upper, pneumococcal
~no smell
~broncho: lower, pseudomonas
~smelly, green/yellow drainage
~tx: antibiotics
paroxsysmal coughing
~intermittent coughing @ night
pneumoectomy
~removal of entire lungs
~no need 4 drainage/chest tube
~used for CA
pulmonary emphysema
etio
~the tiny air sacs within the lungs (alveoli) are destroyed
~the alveoli are not able to pick up enough oxygen for the lungs
~pink puffer