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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the respiratory system
To get oxygen in and carbon dioxide and water out of the body
What is the energy-releasing process that is fueled by oxygen called
What is air made of
A mixure of gases
Nitrogen = 78%
Oxygen = 21%
Remaining 1% = carbon dioxide, water, vapor, trace gases
How much air do we breathe in every minute
6 liters
What would happen without the intake of air
Cells would die
What is needed for the energy producing process that takes place in the cells
Air enters the respiratory system here
How is cold air warmed?
Heated by warm blood in the blood vessels lining the nasal cavities
What is the function of nasal mucus
Moistens the air
Keeps delicate tissues moist
Traps dust and bacteria
New mucus made every 20 min
What happens to old mucus
Moved into the stomach by cilia
Irritation in the nose causes
What keeps air moving down into the respiratory path and not the digestive path
What is the windpipe called
Irritation to the trachea causes
Box shaped structure located at the top of the trachea
Larynx = voice box
What is the Adam's apple made of
2 small folds of tissue that are stretched across the larynx that vibrate when air passes through
Vocal cords - produce voice
Loudness of voice depends on
Amount of air forced through vocal cords
Pitch (high or low) depends on
Length and tension of vocal cords
High = tight, vibrate fast
Low = relaxed, vibrate slow
Mucous membranes of larynx are swollen and inflamed due to infection or irritation causes
(vocal cords don't vibrate freely and causes hoarseness)
Main organ of respiratory system
Trachea branches into 2 large tubes called
Bronchi (bronchus)
Bronchi divide into into tiny tubes ending in hundreds of round sacs called
Function of alveoli
Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
Alveoli are surrounded by a network of tiny blood vessels called
Who much air do we breath
One liter every 10 seconds
Dome shaped muscle that causes the chest to expand
When we inhale and the chest expands, is the air pressure inside the lungs higher or lower than outside
When we exhale and air is forced out of the lungs, is the air pressure higher or lower
What kind of muscle is the diaphragm
When the space between the vocal cords snaps shut and causes a clicking sound what happens
Function of excretory system
Provide a way for various wastes to be removed from the body
What wastes are removed from the body
Water, salts, carbon dioxide, urea
What kind of waste is urea
Nitrogen waste
What are the main organs of the excretory system
How do the kidneys work
Filter wastes and poisons from the blood
What shape and color are the kidneys
Reddish brown kidney bean shape
How much blood is filtered through the kidneys every day
2,000 liters
What are the microscopic chemical filtering factories of the kidneys
Where are wastes filtered out of the blood
Where are waste substances collected in the kidney
Cup shaped part of the nephron called the capsule
Wht happens to most of the water and nutrients that is filtered
Reabsorbed into the blood
What happens to the waste that is left and not needed by the body
Made into urine
96% = water
4% = urea and excess salt
2 narrow tubes that take urine from kidneys to bladder
Muscular sac that holds urine
Urinary bladder
How much urine can the bladder store
470 ml
Tube that releases urine from the body
List 2 other excretory organs
Liver and skin
What does the liver do
1. Removes excess amino acids from blood and breaks down into urea for urine
2. Converts hemoglobin from old red blood cells into bile
What is the protein in the blood called
How are amino acids made
From protein
How much skin do we have
1.5-2 square meters
How thick is skin
0.5mm - eyelids

6 mm - sole of feet
Top layer of skin
Dead cells to be shed from body
No nerves or blood vessels
Bottom and thickest layer of skin
Contains nerves, blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, hair follicles
What helps the body get rid of excess salts, urea and about 0.5 liters of water a day
Sweat glands
How many sweat glands are there are where are they
Found all over body - most under arms, palms, soles
Muscle that causes the chest to expand when you breathe
Place where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the air and blood
Branching tube that carries air into the lungs
Structure that enables you to speak
One of 2 structures that vibrates, producing sound
Vocal cords
Tube that provides passageway for air
Directs air down respiratory path and food down the digestive path
Main organ of respiratory system
Which process rids the body of waste materials
a. absorption
b. excretion
c. digestion
d. fertilization
Why is skin an excretory organ
Skin helps doby get rid of excess salts, urea, and water
Would urine have more or less water on a hot day
Less because body would need to keep more water since it would lose water through sweating
Air passes into the trachea when the epiglottis is open or closed
When you breathe out, your
a. rib muscles relax
b. chest expands
c. lung muscles relax
d. diaphragn contracts
Rib muscle relax
Where is carbon dioxide in the blood is exchanged for oxygen in the air
In the alveoli
Microscopic filters in the kidneys are called
Name 3 main organs of the excretory system
Bodys largest organ, covers an area of 1.5-2 square meters
Which organ belongs to both the respiratory and excretory system