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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Five major air pollutants
CO (major), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter
Four major sources of outdoor pollutants
1. Cars and combustion
2. Coal plants
3. Waste incinerators
4. Atmospheric reactions
Reducing pollutants
1. Sulfur dioxides
2. Coal combustion
Oxidizing pollutants
1. NOs, hydrocarbons, ozone
How much higher are smoker carboxyhemoglobin levels?
5-10 times higher
Symptoms of CO poisoning
CNS impairments, headache, chest tightness, tachycardia, etc.
Cherry red lips
At what percentage level does carbon monoxide poisoning induce collapse (in a healthy person)? Death?
> 40% COHgb. Death may occur at > 60%
Symptoms of SO2 reaction
Forms acid with water -- eye/skin/mucous membrane irritant. Bronchial constriction and bronchospasm.
NO2 poisoning
Reacts with water to produce nitric acid, leading to pulmonary edema
At what ppm does NO2 cause pulmonary edema?
50 ppm for 1 hr
Is there treatment for sulfur or nitric dioxide poisoning?
No.
Reaction of ozone with lungs
1. Lipid peroxidation
2. Inflammation
3. Epithelial permeation
4. Airway reactivity
5. Decreased ciliary clearance
At what ppm does ozone induce pulmonary dysfunction?
> .8
Is there treatment for ozone exposure?
No.
AQI
Air Quality Index (0-500). Values over 150 are considered unhealthy to all groups.
What is radon?
A decay product of uranium that collects in soil.
Average indoor concentration of radon?
1.5 pCi/L
Annual lung cancer deaths due to radon exposure
21, 000
Formaldehyde at high concentrations
causes nasal tumors in animals
Home sources of formaldehyde
Building materials, unventilated fuel-burning appliances. Pressed wood products containing UF resins: particleboard, hardwood plywood, medium density fiberboard
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome/Sick Building Syndrome
Allergic rhinitis or asthma exacerbation
3 major differences between gas vs. particle uptake
1. Gas is reversible
2. Gas is dynamic
3. Gas is saturatable
Absorption of non-reactive gases
Uptake increases with particle coefficient. Absorption is dictated by Henry's Law.
Metabolic reactive gases
Metabolism will enhance uptake
Direct reactive gases
Soluble are taken up in nose, mucus protects against deeply penetrating insoluble substances