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20 Cards in this Set

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Resp Acidosis
Any factor that interfers w/the exchange of gases between blood & air present in alveolus can result in respiratory acidosis.Can be acute or chronic, but all are related to a state of HYPOVENTILATION.
Resp Acidosis Test results
PaCO2 > 45
pH< 7.35
Resp Acidosis causes:

`chest wall trauma
`air way obstruction
`pulmonary edema
`chronic emphysema &
Resp Acidosis s/s


`slow, shallow respirations




`altered LOC

`warm, flushed skin
Resp Acidosis Interventions
`Identify & treat cause

`remove airway obtructions

`mechanical ventilations

`O2 therapy

`IV bronchodilators

`IV sodium bicarbonate
Resp Alkalosis
any factor that contributes to HYPERVENTILATION
Resp Alkalosis Test Results
PaCO2 < 35
pH > 7.45
Resp Alkalosis s/s
`deep rapid high rate breating



`peripheral parethesia


`muscle weakness


Resp Alkalosis Causes:
`acute hypoxia
due to:
`pulmonary edema

`Chronic hypoxia
due to:
`High altitudes
Resp Alkalosis Interventions
`Identify & treat cause

`paper bag breathing

Metabolic Acidosis
an acid base imbalance caused by an increase accumulation of metabolic acids(lactic acid & ketoacids) that rise in proportion to bicarbonate,resulting in decreased arterial pH

HYPERVENTILATION occurs immediately at onset of acidosis causing respiratory compensation
test results
`pH < 7.35 (normal pH = compensation)

`PaCO2 normal
`HCO3 lowered
Metabolic Acidosis
~Kussmual's respirations

`fruity breath









`peripheral vasodilation

`flushed skin

`warm, dry skin


Metabolic Acidosis


`lactic acidosis

`renal failure
Metabolic Acidosis
`saftey precautions
`peripheral vascular status
`monitor cardiac status
acid base imbalance caused by an increased loss of acid(most often from the stomach or kidneys)
HYPOVENTILATION, the respiratory compensatory mechanism, keeps more acids in the body to balance the excess bicarbonate.
Metabolic Alkalosis
test results
pH > 7.45(normal indicates compensation)
PCO2 normal
HCO3 higher
Metabolic Alkalosis
`vomiting or gastric draining

`diuritic therapy

`posthypercapnia alkalosis

`Cushing's syndrome

`Primary aldosteronism

`Bartter's syndrome

`severe potassium depletion
Metabolic Alkalosis




`decreased rr & depth


`paresthesia(fingers & toes)



`hypokalemia(r/t Na levels)

`hypoclhoremia(r/t Na levels)

`ECG changes(alterations in T & U waves) (due to hypokalemia)
Metabolic Alkalosis
`monitor rr & pattern
`auscultate lung sounds
`ensure adequate hydration
`monitor intake & outtake
`monitor serum electrolytes