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77 Cards in this Set

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pulmonary function studies
measure the functional ability of the lungs, measured through a spirometer
tidal volume
volume of air inhaled/exhaled with a normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume
maxium vol of air that normally can be expired
expiratory reserve volume
max vol of air that can be exhaled
residual volume
vol or air left in the lungs after max expiration
vital capacity
max amt of air that can be expired after max inspiration
foreced vital capacity
amt of air exhaled forcefully and rapidly after max inspiration
inspiratory capacity
max amt of air that can be inhaled after normal expiration
functional residual capacity
amount of air left in the lungs after normal expiration
total lung capacity
total vol of air in the lungs when maximally inflated
pulmonary function results vary according to:
age, sex, weight and height, best achieved while sitting or standing, do not perform until 2 hours after a meal
fluroscopy
view thoracic cavity with all its contents in motion, dx location of tumor or lesion
xray
most common, size, shape and position of lungs and other structures of the thorax, screens for asymptomatic dz and to diagnose tumors, foreign bodies, abnormal conditions
pulmonary angiography
radioisotope, assess arterial circulation of the lungs, pulmary emboli, cath in arm vein thru the right atrium and ventricle int eh pulmonary artery, dye in femoral artery, during the nurse assess the pt's level of anxiety and knowledge of procedure, will feel pressure on cath insertion, warm, flushed feeling, urge to cough
sputum
early morning or after an aersol tx, 3 days, return to lab asap in bio bag with order
lung scan
vq scan, gallium scan, pet scan
vq---less radiation than an xray
scan for pulmonary embolism, dye, patterns of blood flow thru the lungs and patterns of air and distrubution in the lungs, also for lung cancer, copd, pulmonary edema.
gallium scan
determine inflammatory conditions exist within the lungs or if abscesses, adhesions or tumors are present. iv inj of gallium, dye, scans taken at various intervals up to 48 hrs after inj, scan shows dye uptake by the lung tissues
pet scan
dyw with advanced technology that show the differnt normal and abnomal tissue and view metabolic changes withing hte lung tissue, malignancies by showing blood flow and functioning of the organs and tissue
bronchoscopy--do not eat or drink 6 hours before**atropine to dry secretions and a sedative to depress vagus nerve
direct visual of the larynx, trachea, bronchi flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, thru the nose or mouth or through a trach, used to diagnose, treat, eval lung dz, obtain a biopsy, sputum, pulmonary cleansing, remove a foreign body
thoracentesis
local, pleural fluid or a biopsy, c and s, blood fluid--trauma, purulent...infection, serous ...cancer, cancer,
pharyngitis
strept a
acute bronchitis--usually begins in the upper respiratory system
inflamm of the mucous membranes that line the major bronchi and their branches
asbestosis
fibrous inflamm or chronic induration of the lungs r/t inhal of asbestos
asthma
reversible obstructive dz of the lower airway e/b inflamm of the airway and a hyper responsiveness of the of the airway to internal or external stimuli
atelectasis
disorder in which the alveoli collapse
bronchiectasis
copd e/b chronic infection and irreversible dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles
chronic bronchitis
prolonged or extended inflamm of the bronchi, e/b a chronic cough and excessive production of mucus for at least 3 months each year for two consecutive years
copd
broad, nonspecific term that describes a group of pulmonary disorders with s/s of chronic cough and expectoration, dyspnea, impaired expiratory airflow
cystic fibrosis
multi system disorder affecting infants, children and young adults that results from a defective autosomal recessive gene; the genetic mutation causes dysfunction of the exocrine glands, involving hte mucus-secreting and eccrine sweat glands,
emphysema
copd e/b abnormal distention of the alveoli
empyema
collection of pus in the pleural cavity
flail chest
disorder occurs when there is two or more adjacement ribs fracture in multiple places and the fragments are free-floating; affects the stability of the chest wall and impairment of chest wall movement
hemoptysis
e/b blood or bloody sputum
influenza
acute viral respiratory dz of relatively short duration
lobectomy
surgical removal of a lobe of a lung
lung abscess
localized area of pus formation within the lung parenchyma
orthopnea
breathing that is eased by sitting upright
pleural effusion
collection of fluid between the visceral and parietal pleurae
pleurisy
infammation of the pleura
pnuemoconiosis
fibrous inflammation or chronic induration of the lungs after prolonged exposure to dust or gases
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of the entire lung
pneumonia
inflamm process affecting the bronchioles and the alveoli
pneumothorax
air that enters the pleural space causing a lung to collapse
pulmonary contusion
crushing bruise of the lung
pulmonary edema
fluid accumulation in the interstinium and alveoli of the lungs which interferes with gas exchange in the alveoli
pulmonary embolism
thrombus that migrates to the pulmonary circulation
pulmonary hyptertension
high pressure within pulmonary circulation
restrictive lung dz
decreased volume of the lungs with an inability to expand completely
segmental resection
surgical removal of a segment of a lung
septicemia
conditions resulting from microorganisms escaping the lumph nodes and reaching the bloodstream, which may lead to sepsis
silicosis
fibrous inflamm or chronic induration of the lungs caused by the inhalation of silica
subq emphysema
presence of air in the subq tissues
thoracotomy
surgical opening of the thorax
tracheitis
inflamm of the trachea
tracheobronchitis
inflamm of the mucous membrane that lines the trachea
tuberculosis
bacterial infectious disease that is caused by M. tuberculosis
wedge resection
surgical removal of a pie shaped portion of diseased tissue from a lung
class 0
no exp, no inf
clas 1
exp, no evidence of inf
class 2
latent inf, no dz (+ ppd reaction but no clinical evidence of active tb
class 3
dz, clinically active
class 4
dz, not clincally active
class 5
suspected dz, dx pending
lobectomy
single lobe of lung removed
bilobectomy
two lobes removed
sleeve resection
cancerous lobes removed and a segment of the main brochus resected
pneumonectomy
removal of the entire lung
segmentectomy
seg of lung removed
wedge resection
removal of small, pie shaped area of the segment
chest wall resection with removal of cancerous lung tissue
for cancers that have invaded the chest wall
pnumononia
inflamm process w/bronchioles and alveioli, can result from radiation, chemical, inhalation, aspiration or foregin bodies, or gastric contents
pneumonia mixed with flu
ranks as the eighth leading cause of death
bacterial pneumo--
typical pneumo, less common but more serious
atypical pneumos
caused by mycoplasmas, L. pneumo, chlamdia, viruses, parasites, fungi, M. tb can cause pneumo,
virus are the most common cause of
pneumo
4 classes of categories
1. CAP comm aq
2. HAP hosp aq
3. immunocompromised host. p. jiroveci, fungal pneumo, pneumo r/t tb
4. aspiration pneumo