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100 Cards in this Set

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_________pressure is another term for pulmonic pressure.
Intrapleural
___________pressure is another term for pulmonic pressure
Alveolar
__________capacity is the combination of inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume.
Functional residual capacity
Adducting the vocal folds during expiration causes an immediate (increase/decrease) in subglottal pressure.
increase
________pressure represents the pressure within the individual alveolus.
Alveolar
Vital capacity, on average, is
4,000 cc
What characteristic of cartilage makes it appropriate and beneficial for use in the respiratory passageway?
it's elastic
The volume of air that can be exhaled following tidal expiration is termed
expiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity is approximately
2,100cc
A single cycle of quiet tidal volume will involve approximately ____ cc of air for the average adult male.
600
An adults has a larger respiratory capacity than an infant. Which of the following best explains this capacity difference?
An adult has a larger thorax

The adult lung is stretched to fill the thorax
Which of the following best describes the rate of respiration for a newborn infant?
40–70 breaths per minute
_______pressure and alveolar pressure are equivalent if the vocal folds are adducted.
subglottal
he rate of flow of respiration is measured using ____________
spirometer
Contraction of the abdominal muscles causes a(n)_____Correctincrease of alveolar pressure.
increase
The volume of air that remains in the lungs after forceful and complete expiration
residual volume
The volume of air that is inspired and expelled in one cycle of quiet breathing
resting tidal volume
The air that includes tidal inspiration and inspiratory reserve volume
inspiratory capacity
The volume of air that can be inspired after a tidal inspiration
inspiratory reserve volume
The volume of air that can be expired after a tidal expiration
expiratory reserve volume
The air that includes tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume
vital capacity
A single cycle of quiet tidal volume will involve approximately_____cc of air for the average adult female
450
Abdominal muscles are involved in ________ expiration.
forced
The volume of air remaining in the lungs following complete expiration, on average, is _______cc.
1,100
Respiratory capacity is measured using __________?
Spirometer
Above this point, the chest wall recoil will have no effect on alveolar pressure
55% of vital capacity
pressure and intraoral pressure and alveolar pressure are equivalent if the vocal folds are open.
sub glottal pressure
Component responsible for relaxation pressures generated below 38% of vital capacity
lung elasticity
Predominantly generates positive pressures above 38% of vital capacity in the relaxation pressure curve
chest wall recoil
At relaxation of the muscles of inspiration and expiration, the proportion that remains in the lungs
38% of vital capacity
describes what happens during inspiration?
The muscles of the abdomen relax, allowing expansion of the diaphragm into the abdominal space.
How does the respiratory cycle differ between adults, babies, and children?
Adults: 12- 18 cycles/min. Newborns: 40 - 70 cycles/min
5 yr old: 25 cycles/min
15 yr old: 20 cycles/min
Compression of results in reduction of lung volume
abdomen
Type of expiration that requires muscular effort
active
Refers to the actual movement of air within the conducting respiratory pathway
ventilation
Twisting of a shaft while one end of the shaft does not move
torquing
The amount of air that can be exhaled following tidal expiration, on average, is
1,000cc
The combination of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
inspiratory capacity
The combination of expiratory reserve volume and residual volume
functional residual capacity
The combination of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
vital capacity
The combination of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume
total lung capacity
______capacity is the combination of inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and tidal volume.
vital
In respiration, what structures undergoes torquing?
Chondral portion of rib
The pressure that can be measured within the mouth is called _______l pressure.
intraoral
is a term meaning “surface-active solution.”
surfactant
The positive side of the relaxation-pressure curve represents the forces of elastic tissue.
restoring
What is the primary purpose of respiration?
Provides the means of gas exchange between an organism and its environment
Contraction of the external intercostal muscles causes a(n) (increase/decrease) of alveolar pressure.
decrease
When the diaphragm contracts, intrapleural pressure becomes (more/less) negative.
more
Flow is measured in
cubic centimeters per minute.
A single cycle of quiet tidal volume will involve approximately _______cc of air for the average adult.
525
Contraction of the diaphragm causes a(n) _____ of alveolar pressure.
decrease
Respiratory volume is measured using what?
Spirometer
Which is the minute volume for quiet tidal respiration, on average?
6,000 cc
The reference pressure for measurement of respiratory pressures is _________ pressure.
atmospheric
resting tidal volume/ expiratory reserve volume/ residual volume/ inspiratory reserve volume (biggest to smallest)
E. total lung capacity
F. vital capacity
total lung capacity> vital capacity> inspiratory reserve volume> residual volume> expiratory reserve volume> resting tidal volume
During expiration, intraoral pressure is (negative/positive) relative to atmospheric pressure.
positive
What has high elasticity?
cartilage & lungs
Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles causes a(n) (increase/decrease) of alveolar pressure.
increase
During inspiration, intraoral pressure is (negative/positive) relative to atmospheric pressure.
negative
Which of the following refers to twisting of a shaft while one end of the shaft remains fixed and does not move?
troque
capacity is the total of inspiratory _______= reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and residual volume.
total lung capacity
__________is the volume that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration.
inspiratory reserve volume
The pressure that can be measured beneath the level of the vocal folds is pressure.
sub glottal
The volume of air that can be inhaled, on average, following tidal inspiration is _________cc.
2,475
Excessive oxygenation of blood
hyperventilation
Inadequate oxygenation of blood
hypoxia
Resting lung volume
38% of vital capacity
Muscles used to impede outflow of air during expiration
muscles of inspiration
Use of musculature to impede the outflow of air in expiration
checking action
What group of muscles is involved in actively torquing elements of the rib cage?
Thoracic
What is the term for the air that cannot be expelled during expiration?
residual volume
What describes what happens when the lungs expand?
Expansion of the thorax- the lungs to expand as a function of the negative intrapleural pressure between the parietal and visceral pleurae.
describe the rate of respiration for an adult.
12–18 breaths per minute
What is the approximate number of respiratory cycles per minute in quiet tidal respiration of an adult?
12
What forces cause the rib cage to return to resting position following torquing of the rib-cage elements
gravity & elasticity
describe the difference between volumes and capacities
Capacities refer to combinations of volumes that express physiological limits. Volumes are discrete, whereas capacities represent functional combinations of volumes.
The volume of air remaining in the lungs following complete expiration is termed .
residual volume
By what age do the lungs have their full complement of alveoli?
8 years
Pressure that never becomes positive during life
intrapleural pressure
Pressure that is measured below the level of the vocal folds
subglottal pressure
At resting lung volume, pressure that is negative
Intrapleural pressure
The reference pressure for respiratory pressure measurements
atmospheric pressure
Pressure that is equal to intraoral pressure and subglottal pressure if the vocal folds are open
Intrapleural pressure
Pressure that is equal to atmospheric pressure if the vocal folds are closed and the mouth is open
intraoral pressure
What refers to the gas exchange across the alveolar-capillary membrane?
Perfusion
Approximately how many cubic centimeters of air are exchanged during quiet tidal respiration, on average?
500
The term refers to combinations of volumes to express physiological limits.
capacities
Atmospheric pressure is approximately _______mm Hg
760
_________ capacity is the total of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume.
inspiratory
Respiratory pressure is measured using which of the following?
Manometer
Change that occurs to the resistance to airflow within the respiratory passageway as a result of turbulence
increases
Form of inspiration that requires use of the diaphragm and accessory muscles of inspiration
forced
Used to measure respiratory pressure
manometer
Used to measure respiratory volume
spirometer
Form of expiration that does not require muscular contraction
passive
The amount of air we breathe during a respiratory cycle is referred to as .
tidal volume
Make up the exchange unit for respiration
alveoli
Muscles of inspiration pull on this structure
thorax
A force of both inspiration and expiration
elasticity