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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dyspnea
Perception of difficulty breathing
Dyspnea is induced by
Abnormal blood gas (pC02, p02)

Abnormalities in pH

Stimulation of pulmonary receptors
Obstructive Lungs Diseases
Asthma

COPD
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Emphysema
Dyspnea and airway obstruction
Expiratory flow limitation due to narrowing of airways.
Asthma
Airway obstruction that is reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment

Airway inflammation

Increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli

Airway remodeling
Asthma - Development of Airway obstruction

Immune response:
Lymphocytic response CD4+ (and CD8+):
- IL-4
- IL-13
- GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor)

B-cells isotype switching to IgE.

Neutrophils recruited
Asthma - Development of Airway obstruction
- Immune response
- Inflammation
- Smooth muscle contraction
- Mucus hypersecretion
- Eventual airway remodeling
Asthma - Creation of Airway obstruction

Inflammatory response
Mast cells
Eosinophils
Neutrophils - bronchospastic mediators
- Histamine
- Leukotrienes
- Platelet activating factor
Symptoms of Airway obstruction in Asthma
Shortness of Breath
Chest Tightness
Wheezing
Cough
Chronic Bronchitis -Airway Obstruction via Airway Inflammation
-Total cell counter - 3x
-Neutrophil accumulation
-Eosinophils
-Depressed helper/suppressor T-cells

Macrophage infiltration of bronchial mucusa

Epithelial and mucus gland hyperplasia

Ciliary denudation
Symptoms of Airway Obstruction in Chronic Bronchitis
SOB
Cough
Wheeze +/-

No tightness in chest (as in asthma)
Emphysema - Airway Obstruction
Inflammation - early lesion of respiratory bronchiolitis with plump, activated MACROPHAGES

Imbalance of proteases/antiproteases
- Neutrophil elastas
- Macrophage matric metalloproteinase

Inactivation of antiproteases

Additional OXYGEN RADICAL mediated lung injury and inactivation of antiproteases
Symptoms of Emphysema
SOB