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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Opposite process of photosynthesis which extracts stored energy from glucose to form ATP from ADP and Pi
Respiration Chemical Equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
First part in respiration which is the decomposition of glucose to pyruvate (or pyruvic acid). Nine intermidiate products are formed and each one is catylyzed by an enzyme. Mg+ is an important cofactor. It takes 1 glucose and turns it into 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, and a NET of 2 ATP
First step in glycolysis
2 ATP are added, which requires the input of energy, it changes glcose in preparation for subsequent steps
Second step in glycolysis
2 NADH are produced, NADH is a conenzyme that accepts 2 electrons from the substrate molecule. It is an energy rich molecule (it has no P like the P does in NADPH for photosynthesis)
Third Step in Glycolysis
4 ATP are formed
Fourth Step in GLycolysis
2 pyruvate are formed
Krebs Cycle
details what happens to the pyruvate end product of glycolysis. Multiply the following by 2 since there are two pyruvates at the end of glycolysis. The C02 produced by this is what animals breathe out
First step in Krebs
Pyruvate to acetyl CoA, in which a pyruvate combines with coenzyme A (CoA) to produce acetyl CoA. 1 NADH and 1 CO2 are produced
2nd step in Krebs
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, CO2 in which acetyl CoA combines with OAA to form citric acid. There are 7 intermdiate products but along the way 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 are produced and CO2 is released. FADH2 is also a coenzyme that accepts electrons during a reaction. It is also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle ( 3 carbob citric acid)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
the process of extracting ATP from NADh and FADH2. Electrons pass alng an electron transport chain on proteins such as cytochromes and the last acceptor is oxygen which accepts two electrons and forms water with 2H+. NADH provides enough electrons to phosphorylate 3 ADP to 3 ATP. FADH2 produces 2 ATP
kind of protein acceptor along the oxidative phosphorylation electron tansport chain
cytochrome C
cytochrome often compared among species to assess genetic relatedness
provides enogh electrons to phosphorylate 3 ADP to 3 ATP
provides enough electrons for 2 ATP
How many ATP from 1 glucose molecule?
36 ATP (should be 38 but the transport of NADH across the mitochonrial membrance reduces the yield 2 ATP in oxidative phosphorylation)
Where glycolysis occurs
Mitochondrial Matrix
home of the Krebs cycle and the conversrion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA (the fluid part)
Cristae, Crista
Internal convulted membrances that separate the mitochondrion into an ainner compartment that contains teh matrix and an outercompartment between the cristae and the outer mitochondrial membrane, in which the electron transport chain is embedded
Chemiosmotic Theory
electrons from NADH and FADH2 lose energy as they pass along the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. It is used to turn ADP into ATP.
First step in Chemiosmotic Theory
H+ accumalate in the outer compartment, since the Krebs cycle produces NADH and FADH2 ni the matric, these two move through the electron transport chain and H+. a proton, is pumped frm the matrix across the cristae and into the outer compartment
2nd step on chemiosmotic theory
a pH and electrical gradient across the crista membrane is created, the accumalation of H+ creates a proton gradient and an electrical charge or voltage gradient. These are potential energy reserves in the same manner as water behind a dam is stored energy.
3rd step of the chemiosmotic theory
ATP synthases generate ATP, channel proteins in the cristae allow the protons in the outer compartment to flow back into the matrix. the protons moving through the channel generate the energy for these channel proteins to produce ATP.
What happens without oxygen
if oxygen is not present, there is no electron acceptor to accept te electrons at the end of teh electron transport chain, then NADH accumalates and once all the NAD+ has been ocnverted, krebs scyle and glycolysis both stop and then no ATP new ATP is produced and teh cell soon dies
Anaerobic Respiration
A method cells use to escape the fate of no oxygen, occurs in the cytoplasm next to glycolysis
Alhoholic Fermentation
Anaerobic respiration in plants, fungi, and bacteria, the objective is to free NAD+ to allow glycolysis to contine which is done by turning NADH into enthanol (which is eventually poisonous to the plant), the reward for this is 2 ATP for each 2 converted pyruvate
first step in alcoholic fermentation
Pyruvate to acetaldehyde, for each pyruvate, 1 CO2 and 1 acetaldehyde are produced. the CO2 is the source of carbonation in fermented drinks like beer and champagne
2nd step in alcoholic fermentation
Acetaldehyde to ethanol, the important part of this step is that the energy in NADH is used to drive this reaction, releasing NAD+. for each Acetaldehyde, 1 ethanol is made and 1 NAD+ is produced. This is the source of alchohol in beer and wine.
Lactate Fermentation
In animals, a pyruvate is converted to lactate or lactic acid and in the process, NADH gives up its electrons to form NAD+. Now it can be used for glycolysis and when O2 becomes available again, lactate can be broken down and its store of energy can be retrieved, but since O2 is needed to do this, it creates an oxygen debt
Oxygen Debt
The fact that it takes O2 to get rid of lactic acid/ lactate in Lactate fermentation