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21 Cards in this Set

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Amantadine Mechanism
Blocks the uncoating of influenza A virus in cells by binding to the M2 ion channel
Amantadine Mechanism Pharmokinetics
- orally abosrbed and very stable
– eliminated renally
– 50% excreted in urine in 24 hrs so it can accumulated in daily doses
– problem b/c therapeutic dose is 1/2 to 2/3 of a toxic dose
Amantadine Mechanism Adverse effects
– nervousness, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, ataxia, inability to concentrate, and, occasionally, blurred vision
– also feeings of detachment
– some geriatrics develop paranoia
Amantadine Mechanism Use
consider this drug prophylactically in patients with cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and metabolic disorders who may therefore face greater risk from illness caused by the influenza A
Zanamivir (inhaled) and Oseltamivir (orally) Mechanism
neuraminadase inhibitors that decrease release of virus from infected cells, increase formation of viral aggregates and decrease viral spread
Zanamivir (inhaled) and Oseltamivir (orally) Adverse effects
Zanamivir may cause throat and nasal discomfort and bronchospasm in asthmatics
Zanamivir (inhaled) and Oseltamivir (orally) use
- for flu
- can reduce severity of Sx, but mainly used ofr prophylaxis
Trifluorothymidine Mechamism
– for herpes simples
- incorporated into viral DNA, which fragments the DNA
Trifluorothymidine Pharmokinetics
– used as 1% solution for eye drops
– minimal systemic absorption when used topically
Trifluorothymidine Adverse effects
– After topical application to eye, occasional burning or stinging and palpebral edema
– Hypersensitivity reactions and epithelial keratopathy are rarely reported
Acyclovir mechanism
- phosphorylated by herpes thymidine kinase but not by cellular thymidine kinase
- The triphosphate form preferentially inhibits herpes DNA polymerase relative to the cellula
- DNA polymerase and acts as a DNA chain terminator
Acyclovir Pharmokinetics
– topical, oral, and IV
– kidneys excrete 90% unchanged, mainly by GF with some tubular secretion
– [] in CSF is about ½ of plasma []
Acyclovir Adverse effects
– occasional nausea or headaches
– carcinogenicity and teratogenicity are rare but serious
Acyclovir Uses
Herpes genitalis, Herpes labialis,Herpes keratitis, Herpes encephalitis and Herpes zoster
Azidothymidine
– RT inhibitor
– increases survival nad decreases the rate of newborn transmission
– SE’s include neutropenia, nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, confusion, malaise and myopathy
– Reistance can develop
enfuvirtide mechanism
- fusion inhibitor
- blocks HIV attachment to CD4+ cells by interfering with viral gp41-mediated fusion
enfuvirtide adverse effects
↑ pneumonia, skin reactions at injection site, and possible severe allergic reactions
enfuvirtide use
- in combo w/ other antiretroviral drugs
– need 2x daily injections
– costs $20,000 a year (while other drugs cost $10,000 a year)
lopinavir-ritonavir combo mechamism
- protease inhibitors
- good for strains resistant to other PI’s or for pts who have failed other regemins
lopinavir-ritonavir combo Toxic effects
- Lipodystrophy and hyperlipidemia
HAART
- Due to rapid HIV production, treat w/ this
– this is drug combo’s like a protease inhibitor and 1 or 2 RT inhibitors