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104 Cards in this Set

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THE NORMAL AMOUNT OF TIDAL VOLUME IS??

500cc
,
THE PART OF THE BRAIN THAT ALLOWS US TO VOLUNTARILY CONTROL OUR RESPIRATIONS IS THE ??

CEREBRAL CORTEX
.
CARBON DIOXIDE IS MOSTLY CARRIED IN THE BLOOD BY THIS??

BICARBONATE
,
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES INCLUDE:

GIVE RENASONCE TO THE VOICE
,
THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT CONSISTS OF THE ??

NASAL CAVITIES, PHARYNX, LARYNX
,
OXYGEN IS ________ IN THE BLOOD AS IT GOES INTO PULMONARY CAPILLARIES.


LOW
,
THE ACTIVE PHASE OF VENTILATION IS CALLED ??


INHALATION
,
THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IS ??


SUPPLY O2, RID C02
.
WHEN THE DIAPHRAGM CONTRACTS THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE THORACIC CAVITY ___________???

DECREASES
.
THE SHELF LIKE BONES ON THE LATERAL WALLS OF THE NASAL CAVITIES THAT INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA AND STIRS UP THE AIR SO MORE FILTERING OCCURS ARE ???

CONCHAE
.
THE PIECE OF CARTILAGE THAT CLOSES THE AIR PASSAGES WHEN ONE SWALLOWS FOOD AND FLUIDS IS THE ????

EPIGLOTTIS
,
THE SUBSTANCE THAT IS THE CHIEF REGULATOR OF RESPIRATION IS??


CARBON DIOXIDE
,
THE AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE FORCEFULLY EXHALED AFTER A MAXIMUM INHALATION IS CALLED??

VITAL CAPACITY
,
THE VOCAL CORDS ARE MADE UP OF ??


MUCOUS MEMBRANES
,
THE EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND THE TISSUES OR BODY CELLS IS ??


INTERNAL RESPIRATION
,
THE SUBSTANCE THAT IS MADE BY THE LUNGS AND DECREASES THE POSSIBILITY OF THE ALVEOLI COLLAPSING IS??

SURFACTANT
/
OXYGEN IS MOSTLY CARRIED IN THE BLOOD AS??


OXYHEMOGLOBIN
,
THE AREA BETWEEN THE PARIETAL AND VISCERAL PLEURAL IS CALLED THE ??


PLEURAL CAVITY
.
AFTER THE AIR ENTERS THE NASAL CAVITIES DURING BREATHING, IT ENTERS THE ??


NASOPHARYNX
/
THE NARROW UPPER PART OF THE LUNG IS CALLED THE ??


APEX
.
PHARYNGO=====PHARYNX
OXO==========OXYGEN
SPIRO========BREATH, BREATHING
ECTASIS======STRETCHING,DILATION,ENLARGE
ORTHO========STRAIGHT,NORMAL,CORRECT
BRONCHI======BRONCHIAL TUBES
CAPNIA=======CARBON DIOXIDE
/
BICARBONATE

C02 DIFFUSED FROM CELLS INTO THE BLOOD (MAIN COMPONENT OF PLASMA IS WATER)
.
BICARBONATE--

PLAYS A ROLE IN ACID-BASE BALANCE IS THAT BY INCREASE OR DECREASE RESPIRATIONS

THE CO2 LEVEL CAN INCREASE OR DECREASE WHICH EFFECTS HOW MUCH HYDROGEN YOU HAVE IN YOUR BLOOD
.
WHEN BLOOD ARRIVES TO THE LUNGS

(H+ + HC03>>HCC03>>CO2 + H20

HYDROGEN ION AND BICARBONATE COMBINE MAKING CARBONIC ACID WHICH FALLS APART AS C02 AND H20

C02 DIFFUSES INTO ALVEOLI AND IS EXHALED
.
EUSTATION TUBE--

CONNECTS MIDDLE EAR TO NASOPHARYNX
.
TIDAL VOLUME 500CC

VOLUME OF AIR THAT MOVES IN AND OUT OF LUNGS WITH EACH BREATH (QUIET, RELAXED BREATHING)
.
VITAL CAPACITY 4800CC

THE VOLUME OF AIR THAT CAN BE EXPELLED FROM THE LUNGS BY MAXIMUM EXHALATION AFTER MAXIMUM INHALATION
.
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME 1000-1200CC

AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE FORCEFULLY EXHALED AFTER EXHALING TIDAL VOLUME
.
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME 3000-3300CC

AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE FORCEFULLY INSPIRED OVER AND ABOVE A NORMAL RESPIRATION
.
RESIDUAL VOLUME 1200CC

AMOUNT OF AIR THAT REMAINS IN THE LUNGS AFTER THE MOST FORCEFUL EXPIRATION
.
HOW RESPIRATIONS ARE CONTROLLED
1. MAJOR STRUCTURE--MEDULLA OBLOGATA IS SENSITIVE TO INCREASES C02 LEVEL IN BLOOD AND DECREASES PH IN BLOOD

2. SEND IMPULSES TO DIAPHRAGM AND EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS TO INCREASE RESPIRATIONS TO RID OF CO2
.
CARBON DIOXIDE CO2

MAJOR CHEMICAL
CHIEF REGULATOR OF RESPIRATIONS
.
THE CAROTID AND AORTIC BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO INCREASED CO2 AND DECREASED PH

SENDS IMPULSES TO MEDULLA WHICH SEND IMPULSES TO DIAPHRAGM AND EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS TO INCREASE RESPIRATIONS
.
CAROTID AND AORTIC BODIES

SENSORY RECEPTORS IN CAROTID ARTERIES AND AORTIC ARCH ARE CALLED THESE
,
PONS HELP KEEP BREATHING RHYTHMIC

STRECTH RECEPTORS IN LUNGS THAT ARE SENSITIVE TO STRETCH OF THE LUNG IS TO PREVENT OVERINFLATION OF THE LUNGS **EXHALATION OCCURS
,
CEREBRAL RECEPTORS

ALLOWS US TO VOLUNTARY CONTROL OUR RESPIRATIONS (SPEED, SLOW, HOLD BREATH)
.
CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL OF BLOOD

IS MORE POWERFUL

THAN OUR CONSCIOUS MIND
/
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES??

LIGHTEN SKULL
GIVE RESONANCE TO YOUR VOICE
.
MAXILLARY SINUSES;;

LOCATED IN THE MAXILLARY BONES, THEY ARE THE LARGEST OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES
.
FRONTAL SINUSES

ARE LOCATED IN THE FRONTAL BONE
JUST ABOVE THE EYES
.
THE SPHENOID SINUSES

LOCATED IN THE SPHENOID BONE
ARE CLOSE TO THE OPTIC NERVES
AN INFECTION HERE CAN DAMAGE VISION
.
THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING

IS CONTINUOUS WITH NASAL CAVITY
.
PHARANGEAL TONSILS

ARE LOCATED IN THE NASOPHARGNX
.
UVULA ??

HANGIE THINGIE IN THE BACK OF THROAT
(CONE SHAPED STRUCTURE) DIRECTS FOOD AND FLUID INTO OROPHARYNX
.
PALENTINE TONSILS

LOCATED IN THE OROPHARYNX
.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE--(MUCOUS IS THE NAME OF THE TISSUE)

MUCUS (IS THE SECRETION THAT FLOWS FROM THE TISSUE SNOT)
.
HOW DO WE MAKE SOUND??

THE LARYNX (VOICEBOX) IS LINED WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANES THAT HAS FOLDS THAT VIBRATE AS AIR FLOWS PLAST THEM CALLED VOCAL CORDS
.
EPIGLOTTIS (LOCATED IN LARYNX)

MADE OF CARTILAGE THAT COVERS OVER THE TOP PART OF THE LARYNX, WHEN WE SWALLOW TO PREVENT ENTRY OF FOOD AND FLUIDS INTO THE LARYNX
.
APEX;

NARROW UPPER PORTION UNDER CLAVICLE
.
THERE IS CARTILAGE ALL THE WAY DOWN TO THE BRANCHES EXCEPT WHEN YOU GET TO THE BRONCHIOLES (WHICH DO NOT HAVE CARTILAGE)

THEY HAVE SMOOTH MUSCLE,
WHICH CONTRACT AND RELAX
.
AT THE END OF THE BRONCHIOLES

ARE MILLIONS OF

AIRSACS CALLED
ALVEOLI
.
SURFACTANT--

IS A SUBSTANCE SECRETED BY THE ALVEOLAR CELLS THAT REDUCES SURFACE TENSION AND KEEP ALVEOLI INFLATED (PREVENTS COLLAPSE OF ALVEOLI)
.
LUNGS

THE STRUCTURES OF THE LUNGS

BRONCHIAL TREE AND ALVEOLI
.
BASE OF THE LUNG:

BROAD LOWER PORTION THAT REST NEAR DIAPHRAM
.
MEDIASTINUM;

AREA BETWEEN THE LUNGS
.
PLEURA;

SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THORACIC CAVITY
.
PARIETAL PLUERA--

LINES THE THORACIC CAVITY
.
VISCERA PLUERA--

COVERS SURFACE OF THE LUNGS
.
PLEURA SPACE, PLEURA CAVITY--

AREA BETWEEN PLUERA THAT CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT OF SEROUS FLUID TO REDUCE FRICTION AS LUNGS MOVE
.
PLEURO======PLUERA
THORACO=====CHEST
LAYRNGO=====LARYNX
NASO/RHINO==NOSE
PULMONO=====LUNG
PYO=========PUS
.
VENTILATION

MOVEMENT OF AIR IN AND OUT OF LUNGS
/
EXTERNAL RESPIRATIONS

GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN AIR IN ALEVOLI AND BLOOD IN THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES AROUND ALVEOLI
.
INTERNAL RESPIRATIONS

(CELLULAR RESPIRATIONS) EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN BLOOD IN CAPILLARIES IN TISSUE AND THE BODY CELLS
/
2 PARTS OF VENTILATION

1. INHALTION-(INSPIRATION)
AIR MOVEMENT INTO THE LUNGS (ACTIVE)

2. EXHALATION-(EXPIRATION)
AIR MOVING OUT OF THE LUNGS (PASSIVE)
.
WHAT IS THE MAIN FUNCTION OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM??

TO SUPPLY BODY TISSUES WITH OXYGEN AND RID CARBON DIOXIDE WASTE PRODUCTS
.
WHAT ARE THE OTHER 4 FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM??

1. SPEECH
2. SMELL
3. WATER BALANCE
4. ACID-BASE BALANCE
.
LIST THE ORDER OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM THAT AIR ENTERS THE BODY

NASAL CAVITIES > PHARYNX > LARNYX > TRACHEA > R & L BRONCHI > BRONCHIAL TREE > SM BRANCHES > BRONCHIOLES > ALVEOLI
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE NASAL CAVITY?

(NOSE) SMELL, A PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR, WARMS, MOISTENS & FILTERS AIR
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE TRACHEA??

(WINDPIPE) PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE BRONCHI (RIGHT AND LEFT BRONCHI)??

THEY DISTRIBUTE AIR TO THE LUNGS
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE ALVEOLI (AIR SACS) ??

GAS EXCHANGES OCCUR HERE
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE PHARYNX??

(THROAT) PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR INTO RESPIRATORY TRACT AND FOOD INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE LARYNX??

(VOICEBOX) CONTAINS VOCAL CORDS THAT PRODUCES SOUND AND SPEECH, PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
.
WHAT DOES THE UPPER AIRWAYS INCLUDE??

NASAL CAVITY(NOSE)
PHARYNX (THROAT)
LARYNX (VOICEBOX)
.
WHAT DOES THE LOWER AIRWAYS INCLUDE??

TRACHEA (WINDPIPE)
BRONCHI (BRACHES OF THE TRACHEA THAT ENTER THE LUNGS
LUNGS, ALVEOLI, AIRSACS
.
CONCHAE OR TUBINATIS

SHELF LIKE BONES ON THE LATERAL WALL OF THE NASAL CAVITIES THAT INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA AND "STIRS UP" THE AIR SO MORE FILTERING OCCURS
.
OLFACTORY RECEPTERS IN THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE

SENSITIVE TO SMELLS, IMPULSES SENT TO BRAIN BY OLFACTORY NERVES
.
SINUSES ARE:

PART OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
.
PHARYNGO=====PHARYNX
OXO==========OXYGEN
SPIRO========BREATH, BREATHING
ECTASIS======STRETCHING,DILATION,ENLARGE
ORTHO========STRAIGHT,NORMAL,CORRECT
BRONCHI======BRONCHIAL TUBES
CAPNIA=======CARBON DIOXIDE
/
1.THE LUNGS ARE PROTECTED BY THE RIBCAGE

2. LOCATED IN THE THORACIC CAVITY

3. RIGHT LUNG HAS 3 LOBES

4. LEFT LUNG HAS 2 LOBES
.
BOYLES LAW

1. WHEN A CONTAINERS VOLUME **INCREASES** THE AIR PRESSURE INSIDE THE CONTAINER **DECREASES**

2. WHEN A CONTAINERS VOLUME **DECREASES** THE AIR PRESSURE INSIDE THE CONTAINER **INCREASES**
.
BRONCHI & BRONCHIAL TREE
1. TRACHEA DIVIDES INTO RIGHT AND LEFT BRONCHI

2. THEY BRANCH OFF AS THEY ENTER THE UPPER LOBES OF THE LUNGS AND CONTINUE TO BRANCH SMALLER & SMALLER TO THE SMALLEST BRANCHES CALLED BRONCHIOLES

3. FUNCTION: PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
.
3 PHASES OF BREATHING

1. VENTILATION

2. EXTERNAL RESPIRATIONS

3. INTERNAL RESPIRATIONS
.
ALVEOLI (AIR SACS)

1. WALLS ARE ONE CELL THICK

2. SURROUNDED BY A NETWORK OF PULMONARY CAPILLARIES

3. GAS EXCHANGES OCCUR HERE
.
ATELO=======INCOMPLETE

TRACHEO=====TRACHEA

PNEA========BREATHING

OSTOMY======SURGICAL OPENING

PNEUMO======LUNGS & AIR

CENTESIS=SURGICAL PUNCTURE/ REMOVE FLUID
,
BICARBONATE--

C02>>H20>>H2C03>>H+hC03

CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER =CARBONIC ACID

WHICH "FALLS APART" READILY AS A HYDROGEN ION AND BICARBONATE
.
CARBON DIOXIDE IS TRANSPORTED IN THE BLOOD 3 WAYS

1. IN THE PLASMA

2. ATTACHED TO THE HEMOGLOBIN OF RBC'S

3. AS BICARBONATE (HC03) **MOST
.
ETHMOID SINUSES;;

LOCATED IN THE ETHMOID BONES

ARE IRREGULARLY SHAPED AIR CELLS

SEPARATED FROM THE ORBITAL (EYE) CAVITY ONLY BY A THIN LAYER OF BONE
.
EXHALATION--1.DIAPHRAGM AND EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL RELAX
2.SO DIAPHRAGM AND RIBCAGE RETURN TO THEIR ORIGINAL POSITIONS, WHICH PUSHES ON THE LUNGS AND PUSHES THE AIR OUT
3. WE CAN FORCEFULLY EXHALE BY CONTRACTING THE INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS AND THE ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, WHICH DECREASES THORACIC CAVITY
4. AIR PRESSURE INCREASES AND FLOWS OUT OF THE LUNGS FORCEFULLY
.
LARYNGOPHARYNX--

1. THE THIRD DIVISION

2. IS SUPPORTED AT THE TOP BY THY HYOID BONE

3. CONTINUES DOWNWARD TO THE OPENINGS OF THE ESOPHAGUS & TRACHEA
.
LARYNX (VOICE BOX)
1. IS BETWEEN THE PHARNYX & TRACHEA

2. 9 SEPARATE CARTILAGES

3. FUNCTION: PRODUCE SOUND/SPEECH

4. PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
5. ADAMS APPLE /GLOTTIS-VOCAL APPARATUS
.
MUCUS IN THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. LINED W/MUCOUS MEMBRANE CALLED THE RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.

2. A LAYER OF MUCUS PURIFIES THE INHALED AIR BY BEING STICKY

3. PRODUCES ABOUT 125cc QD
4. CILIA IN TRACHEA & BRONCHIAL TREE SWEEPS MUCUS TOWARD THE LARYNX & PHARNYX
.
NASOPHARYNX--

1. THE FIRST DIVISION

2. IS THE PORTION POSTERIOR TO THE NASAL CAVITY

3. CONTINUES DOWNWARD
.
OROPHARYNX--

1. THE SECOND DIVISION

2. IS PART OF THE THROAT VISIBLE WHEN LOOKING IN THE MOUTH
.
PARANASAL SINUSES:

SINUSES ARE HOLLOWED AREAS OF THE BONE
1.FRONTAL

2.MAXILLARY

3.ETHMOID

4.SPHENOID
.
PHARNYX (THROAT)--
MADE UP OF THREE PARTS

1.NASOPHARYNX (AIR)

2.OROPHARYNX (FOOD)

3.LARYNGOPHARYNX (FOOD)

FUNCTION: PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR AND FOOD
.
TRACHEA (WINDPIPE)
1. 4-5 INCHES LONG

2. 15-20 CARTILAGE RINGS

3. ONE ABOVE THE OTHER W/OPENING OF THE "C" POSTERIOR TO ALLOW THE ESOPHAGUS TO BULGE WHEN SWALLOWING FOOD

4. LINED W/CILIATED EPITHELIUM THAT PRODUCES MUCUS

5. PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
.
TRANSPORT OF GASSES IN THE BLOOD
OXYGEN IS TRANSPORTED IN 2 WAYS

1. IN THE PLASMA (SMALL AMOUNTS)

2. ATTACHED TO THE HEMOGLOBIN OF RBC'S (OXYHEMOGLOBIN) **MOST
.
WHAT ARE THE DIVISIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM??

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
LUNGS
.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE?

SMELL

PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR

WARMS, MOISTENS AND FILTERS AIR
.
WHAT IS THE NASAL CAVITY (NOSE) MADE OF?
1. BONE & CARTILAGE COVERED W/SKIN

2. DIVIDED BY THE NASAL SEPTUM

3. OPENINGS ARE CALLED NOSTRILS OR NARES

4. LINED W/MUCOUS MEMBRANES, MUCUS MOISTENS & FILTERS THE AIR

5. NASAL HAIR-NARE HAIR FILTERS THE AIR

6. VASCULAR (BLOOD VESSELS) WARMS AIR
.
INHALATION--1.PHRENIC NERVE STIMULATES DIAPHRAM & EX. INTERCOSTALS TO CONTRACT
2.DIAPHRAGM FLATTENS WHEN IT CONTRACTS AND RIBCAGE MOVES OUTWARD WHEN INTERCOSTAL CONTRACT
3.ENLARGES THORACIC CAVITY WHEN THE THORACIC CAVITY INCREASES THE AIR PRESSURE INSIDE DECREASES
4.WHEN THE AIR PRESSURE IS LESS THAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, AIR MOVES INTO THE LUNGS
.
INTERNAL RESPIRATION--1.EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN BLOOD IN TISSUE CAPILLARIES & THE BODY CELLS 2.BLOOD IN TISSUE CAPILLARIES IS HIGH IN 02, LOW C02 3.BODY CELLS ARE LOW IN 02 AND HIGH IN CO2 4.02 IS USED FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION W/C02 BEING A WASTE PRODUCT 5.02 DIFFUSES FROM THE BLOOD INTO THE TISSUE CAPILLARIES INTO BODY CELLS 6.C02 DIFFUSES FROM THE BODY CELLS INTO BLOOD IN THE TISSUE CAPILLARIES 7.BLOOD RETURNING TO THE HEART IS LOW IN 02 AND INCREASED IN CO2 IS PUMPED TO THE LUNGS
.
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION--1.EXHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN AIR IN THE ALVEOLI & BLOOD IN PULMONARY CAPILLARIES AROUND THE ALVEOLI 2.GAS DIFFUSES FROM AN AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION TO LOW CONCENTRATION 3.AIR IN ALVEOLI IS HIGH IN O2 AND LOW IN CO2 4.O2 DIFFUSES FROM THE AIR IN THE ALVEOLI INTO THE BLOOD OF PULMONARY CAPILLARIES
5.BLOOD LEAVING THE LUNGS GOES BACK TO THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HEART HIGH IN 02,LOW CO2 TO BE PUMPED ALL OVER THE BODY
,