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63 Cards in this Set

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Self-Administered Questionnaire’s
you have people fill out the questionnaire out on their own rather than have an interviewer
Forced Choice Method
-2 options which are equally desirable, whichever option you pick is equally good
Neutral Questions
give two questions that are not socially desirable either way, try to use words that are
Select Interviewers
pick interviewers who are not going to elicit social desirability responses-people that others are not going to try to impress
Positive of Self-Administered
eliminates pressure so you can answer freely, rather than be intimidated to having someone face to face
Bogus Pipeline
>there must be a pre-test to get people’s responses to some attitudes (Capital punishment, abortion) then they come back one month later and you bring them into a room that “can tell the truth about your attitudes”
-when the person goes to answer the question, they use the first 3 questions to “calibrate it” and it does so correctly….this is why they tell the truth through the rest of the questions, because they saw that the machine did tell the truth
Three types of observations
Contrived Observation
introduce a stimulus to see the effect it has on someone

Ex: Urinal study, they would manipulate their stance in the stalls to see how people reacted
Naturalistic Observation
you are observing something in their natural environment

ex: study that tried to figure out how long it takes someone to leave their parking spot at the mall~2 conditions -someone waiting -someone not waiting
Controlled Observation
you control the environment the way you want it to be
Ex: monkey study
Unobtrusive Experiment
You do not appear to be observing or you don’t appear at all

Ex: bugging the dinner table so no one knows your listening to them/ the parking lot experiment
Types of Unobtrusive experiments
Physical cases
Archival records
Physical cases
-a physical remainder of a previous action

Ex: car renter wanted to advertise and didn’t know what radio station so he would check the radio station’s when the renters would return the car
Archival records
-information that has been stored about the past
-government documents, medical records
Negative: people might try to manipulate the data and act a certain way they think you may or may not want them to act
When you use inference you are trying to find out the deep characteristics, the real meaning beneath the surface. It is very risky because it requires subjectivity and guessing
types of inferences
-surface features
-deep features
surface features
right there readily perceivable
deep features
you have to make an inference to understand what is really there
example of inferences using the 2 types
woman compliments boss he looks good→surface it is a nice comment, deep level (USING INFERENCE) she may be trying to brown nose and get ahead with the boss
Likert Scale
-equal number of items represents each poll
Ex: measure introversion and extroversion, you want each poll to measure half the number of items
Thurstone Scale
Items are ranked by difficulty; some questions are harder than others
ESM: Experience Sampling Methodologies: Four Advantages
i. Reduce memory biases ii. Get a lot of information about the person
iii. You can get personalized psychological laws
iv. You can compare people on their personal laws and you can get the average law
HLM: Hierarchical Linear Modeling
the statistical technique that allows you getting those personalized psychological laws
Semantic differential
-each pole has an opposite word to the other pole
-no effort to make them equally socially desirable
-it is a “close-ended” question because you are limited to only six responses
-have each item on a separate card and put them in piles on top of each number and the subject has a limited amount of cards they can put on each number
-forces people to make distinctions between the items
Q-sort problem
forcing people to give answers they may not normally give
problem with Physiological Measures
often not very precise so you may not know the particular cause of the response
types of Physiological Measures
-heart rate
-skin conductants
-brain activity
-startle reflex
Heart Rate example
ex: how much do you love your wife…see how much their heart rate goes up when asked
Startle reflex
-has to do with the brain stem
-the brain stem determines what you pay attention to, it keeps things out of your mind that you don’t want to pay attention to
-by giving someone a stimulus, you can record what it does to them
-you can figure out what is going on in the brain stem by the amount of times you blink
-introverts startle more easily than extroverts
Brain activity
-functional magnetic resonance imagery: can tell where activity is going on in your brain and it creates an image of your brain
-measure the amount of Cortisol and you can tell how much they are feeling ashamed
-the more Cortisol, the more they are ashamed
Skin Conductants
-measure how much you sweat (how much electricity you are conducting)
Implicit Measure Test
-Measure people’s implicit responses because certain ideas correlation

-have two conditions (good or me –and- bad or not me)

-a word comes on the screen and has to press one of the buttons-then they switch up the bad and good and take the first time it takes to do it minus the amount of time it takes them to do it the second time and it tells you how much self-esteem the person has
Cross-cultural Measurement
-try to measure things across countries
Back Translation
-translate the English phrase into the language you’re interested in, and then translate it back to see if you have the same English phrase.
Why is back translation important?
-slight differences in wording could be responsible for differences in results
What is the way to determine if your measure is valid?
-Reliability and Validity!
Coding is for ______ type of questions only
for open ended questions only
Content Analysis
when you are coding you are analyzing the content
-another way of measuring half way between observational measure and report measures
-both self-report and observational
Close ended/structured question
give people only a certain number of answers
Open ended question
ask them to respond any way they want to
Pros of Open Ended questions
-The responses are not limited
-person can respond any way they want
-they get to use their own words
-richer information…more meaningful
Cons of Open Ended Questions
-Comparability: harder to compare the answers, almost impossible
-some of the answers may be irrelevant
-Coding is very slow and very hard
Motives being measured
need for affiliation
need for achievement
need for power
Need for affiliation
need to have people like them
Need for achievement
the motivation to do things better, you get pleasure doing things better than they have done before
Need for Power
motivation to have an impact on other people
Inference and example
-you have to choose the categories or dimensions you are going to code on
-there must be a lot of inference when you are coding

Ex: when he talks about the guy wanting to marry the girl you assume it is for his need for attention
Coders> You have to decide who you want to be your raters or coders…naive or expert?
- Naive people who don’t know anything about it, no special training
- experts→ex: when you are rating writing, you want someone who is an expert writer
-when accuracy is a big problem, the expert can overcome that accuracy
inter-rater reliability
if different raters agree with the rating scale then you know it is reliable
Why do you do Factor Analysis?
-you try to reduce the data to a few fundamental underlying variables…you have too many variables to make sense of so you try to reduce them to understand the data better→to reduce them, you find out which variables are redundant

Ex: ideal partner in a close relationship questionnaire
how does reducing variables work?
By making assumptions
two Steps in the factor Analysis
(make sure you do both!)
Publication is the ____ step in your research
Authorship (part of publication)
-who is on the paper and in what order they are in, reserved for people who made a primary contribution; substantial contribution in the data. It must be something scientifically substantial
-ex: clever data analysis, insightful interpretation of the data-
-students standards are lowered because it is harder for them to make a substantial contribution
-the first author is the key→ they are the one’s who did the most work
Pick Journal (part of publication)
-about 300 journals that differ in tow things


~prestige: to evaluate prestige look at the citation impact factor (the number of times an article is cited in later articles)-citation impact over 2 is really good

-Some journals are better to get into than others
Submit (part of publication)
-you can only submit it to one journal at a time

-the editor send it out to 3 reviewers at a time that are anonymous and the reviewers write a one or two page analysis that mostly focus’s on weaknesses
steps of publication
-Pick a Journal
-Revise and Resubmit (80% accepted)
-Reject (80-90% rejected)
after rejection
Revise and Resubmit (80% accepted)