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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 criteria for Causality?
1. Temporal Order
2. Correlation
3. Non-Spuriousness
4. Statistical Significance
Something that acts through another variable
Indirect causation
What is a Null Hypothesis?
"There is no relationship between X and Y."
Turning a hypothesis into something we can measure
Each single unit that is being observed
Type of group of the case we are observing (ex: individuals, states, etc)
Unit of Analysis
What are the 3 Levels of Analysis? Describe.
1. Nominal- creating categories
2. Ordinal- Order of the values in the cases
3. Interval- Most level of info; standardized unit/# = most specific
The 2 types of Error are Random Error & Systematic. Describe them.
Random- truly random; not systematic; cancel each other out
Systematic- a huge problem; effects cases in same way
What is validity?
How close you come to true value a case holds.
When the values of multiple tests are the same. Get the true score of value several times. If measurement is unreliable = not valid. Can be reliable without being valid (hit dart in same area several times, but sight/aim is off)
Get control without having control groups. (Ex post facto: can be gathered after the fact or event)
Quazi-Experimental Design
What we do when we have way too many cases we could possibly study. *A subgroup of the cases in a population (all the cases you can study)
Select a sample so that you can be _____ of all the cases in a population. If no _____, it will only apply to a sample, not the population.
If sample drawn randomly, 2 main things have to be met:
1. Each case in pop has same chance to be selected into sample.
2. Each set or combo of cases has same chance to be selected
Oversample based on some perimeter.
Weighted sampling
How do you know how large a sample to use in a population?
-How like a population is
-Amt of sampling error or margin of error that you're willing to take
*95 times out of 100 that estimates will be within the margin of error (& will not be a biased sample) - How you feel that the sample you got from the population is representative of the population.
Confidence Level
What are the 3 types of Research?
1. Descriptive
2. Exploratory
3. Explanatory
Seek an explanation for some phenomenon (type of research)
Describing different things you have (research)
You have a question, but no info about it(research)
Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Identify research ?
2. Make observation
3. Formulate tentative model
4. Do literature review
5. Finalize model
6. Formulate specific hyp.
7. Operationalization
8. Research Design
9. Gather data
10. Analyze data
11. Test theory
12. Refine theory
Framework for how you view the world.
Concept that is specific in nature and it varies
Measurements we can make of variables
2 variables that increase together (%voting & age)
Positive relationship hyp
As age increases, voting decreases
Negative relationship hyp
Variables that change together; necessary but not sufficient
Variable A causes Variable B
Force, event, change in what cause dependent variable to move
Independent Variable
Variable being acted upon
Dependent variable
2 hypotheses that can't occur @ the same time (1 true, other not true)
-used to rule out spuriousness
rival hypothesis
Applying a measurement in order to assign values to the different variables
Characterized according to different levels of analysis
How specific your values are when charaterized - how they are measured
Levels of analysis
Give test to different groups, get same responses
Subsample method
1. purpose
2.statement of hyp
3. specific ways variable will be measured
4. detailed statement of how observations are collected
Research Design
Used to rule out spuriousness
Rival hypothesis
How close you come to the value
Asks "Are you sure your research design provides good evidence for your hypothesis?"
**Do the variables really measure the concepts?**
Internal validity
Asks "How generalizable are your results? (significant relationship)"
External validity
People's behavior change, react to stimuli
Control groups need to be as similiar as possible to experiment groups
Crucial point
Indicator for independent variable
Systematic Random Sampling =
Lee County, City of AU, Dean Rd., house on Dean Rd.
Cluster sampling
Intentional selection of cases
Judgemental sample
What are the 3 kinds of Surveys?
1. Mail
2. Phone
3. Interview
What survey has the lowest response rate?
This type of question lets the respondent create own answer (used in interview-to clarify ?s)
Open-ended ?s
This type of question forces respondent to make a choice
Close-ended ?s
What are the 4 types of info gathered from surveys?
What survey takes the longest?
What survey takes the shortest time?
A learning experience from the pretest that teaches you something that helps you score better on the post test.
Test effect