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### 55 Cards in this Set

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 What are the 4 criteria for Causality? 1. Temporal Order 2. Correlation 3. Non-Spuriousness 4. Statistical Significance Something that acts through another variable Indirect causation What is a Null Hypothesis? "There is no relationship between X and Y." Turning a hypothesis into something we can measure Operationalization Each single unit that is being observed Case Type of group of the case we are observing (ex: individuals, states, etc) Unit of Analysis What are the 3 Levels of Analysis? Describe. 1. Nominal- creating categories 2. Ordinal- Order of the values in the cases 3. Interval- Most level of info; standardized unit/# = most specific The 2 types of Error are Random Error & Systematic. Describe them. Random- truly random; not systematic; cancel each other out Systematic- a huge problem; effects cases in same way What is validity? How close you come to true value a case holds. When the values of multiple tests are the same. Get the true score of value several times. If measurement is unreliable = not valid. Can be reliable without being valid (hit dart in same area several times, but sight/aim is off) Reliability Get control without having control groups. (Ex post facto: can be gathered after the fact or event) Quazi-Experimental Design What we do when we have way too many cases we could possibly study. *A subgroup of the cases in a population (all the cases you can study) Sampling Select a sample so that you can be _____ of all the cases in a population. If no _____, it will only apply to a sample, not the population. Representative If sample drawn randomly, 2 main things have to be met: 1. Each case in pop has same chance to be selected into sample. 2. Each set or combo of cases has same chance to be selected Oversample based on some perimeter. Weighted sampling How do you know how large a sample to use in a population? -How like a population is -Amt of sampling error or margin of error that you're willing to take *95 times out of 100 that estimates will be within the margin of error (& will not be a biased sample) - How you feel that the sample you got from the population is representative of the population. Confidence Level What are the 3 types of Research? 1. Descriptive 2. Exploratory 3. Explanatory Seek an explanation for some phenomenon (type of research) Explanatory Describing different things you have (research) Descriptive You have a question, but no info about it(research) Exploratory Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Identify research ? 2. Make observation 3. Formulate tentative model 4. Do literature review 5. Finalize model 6. Formulate specific hyp. 7. Operationalization 8. Research Design 9. Gather data 10. Analyze data 11. Test theory 12. Refine theory Framework for how you view the world. Theory Concept that is specific in nature and it varies Variable Measurements we can make of variables Indicators 2 variables that increase together (%voting & age) Positive relationship hyp As age increases, voting decreases Negative relationship hyp Variables that change together; necessary but not sufficient Correlation Variable A causes Variable B Causation Force, event, change in what cause dependent variable to move Independent Variable Variable being acted upon Dependent variable 2 hypotheses that can't occur @ the same time (1 true, other not true) -used to rule out spuriousness rival hypothesis Applying a measurement in order to assign values to the different variables observation Characterized according to different levels of analysis Values How specific your values are when charaterized - how they are measured Levels of analysis Give test to different groups, get same responses Subsample method 1. purpose 2.statement of hyp 3. specific ways variable will be measured 4. detailed statement of how observations are collected Research Design Used to rule out spuriousness Rival hypothesis How close you come to the value Validity Asks "Are you sure your research design provides good evidence for your hypothesis?" **Do the variables really measure the concepts?** Internal validity Asks "How generalizable are your results? (significant relationship)" External validity People's behavior change, react to stimuli Reactivity Control groups need to be as similiar as possible to experiment groups Crucial point Indicator for independent variable Perimeter Systematic Random Sampling = Phonebook Lee County, City of AU, Dean Rd., house on Dean Rd. Cluster sampling Intentional selection of cases Judgemental sample What are the 3 kinds of Surveys? 1. Mail 2. Phone 3. Interview What survey has the lowest response rate? Mail This type of question lets the respondent create own answer (used in interview-to clarify ?s) Open-ended ?s This type of question forces respondent to make a choice Close-ended ?s What are the 4 types of info gathered from surveys? 1.attitudes 2.beliefs 3.behavior 4.attributes What survey takes the longest? Interviews What survey takes the shortest time? mail A learning experience from the pretest that teaches you something that helps you score better on the post test. Test effect