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35 Cards in this Set

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Experimental Designs
-Answers cause and effect about the relationship between 2 variables
-Attempts to explain relationship by determining the underlying cause
-Uses control variable and manipulated IV
1)Single Factor
2)Factorial
QuasiExperimental
General
-Addresses cause & effect
-Less than complete control over the variables in the study
-Whenever causal conclusions about the effect of an IV cannot be drawn because there's incomplete control over the variables in the study
-Attempts to control confounds
1)Nonequivalent Control Group
2)Interrupted Time Series
Quasi-
Nonequivalent Control Groups Design
-Multiple measures & groups
-Nonequivalent assignment
Experimental Group-O1 T O2
Nonequivalent Control-O1 O2
-Statistical comparison is between the change of scores O1 & O2 for each group
Quasi-
Nonequivalent Control Groups Design
Control Issues
-Groups different at outset of study
-Also experience different conditions in study
--Built in confounds that cloud interpretation
-Useful for evaluation of treatment program when random assignment isnt possible
Quasi-
Time Series
-Requires series of observations for each participant before and after treatment or event
-Study process of change
-Only 1 group is needed--Inherent weakness
Time Series--Control
-Combining nonequivalent control group design and time series
(eg)Implementing a helmet law in WA but not in ID & comparing # of head injuries
-Conclusions can be strengthened if some type of control comparison can be made
Time Series--Switching
-Condition is given to both groups but at seperate times
(eg)Implementing helmet law in WA & then in ID 1 yr later & comparing # of head injuries
-When program is to be introduced in different locations at different times
-Provides built-in replication
Time Series--Multiple DV's
-Measure multiple DV's over a sequence of time
(eg)Measuring effect of 3-strike law in CA on minor and serious crimes
-Some of the DV's are expected to be influenced by the "interruption" while others are not expected to change
Time Series vs. Interrupted Time Series
TIME SERIES:
- Event that occurs in middle of a series of observations is a tx manipulated/administered by researcher
(eg)Measuring fighting before & after anger management tx
INTERRUPTED TIME SERIES:
- Intervening event is not manipulated by researcher
(eg)Measuring nightmares before & after months of earthquake
-Takes measures for extended period before & after the event expected to influence behavior
--Allows to evaluate trends
Quasi
Archival Research
-Info is already gathered
-Quasi because you attempt to control for confounds
Strengths: Unlimited, eliminates P reactivity
Weaknesses: Missing data, not representative, experimenter bias
Small N Designs
General
-Only 1 or few participants
-1st design to be used
-Combine time-series & case studies with manipulated IV
-Not total control over extraneous variables
-Rely on eyeball of data
-Skinner & operant conditioning-Modify behavior through use of reinforcement & consequences
Small N
Pros--Cons--
Advantages:
-Detection of individual differences (subject validity)
-Applied settings
-Intense study over extended period of time
-Study small or rare populations
-No assumptions about pop.
Disadvantage:
-Cannot generalize-low external validity
-
Small N Designs
Types
1)AB
2)Withdrawal
3)Reversal
4)Dismantling
5)Multiple Baselines
6)Changing Criterion
Small N --AB Design
A-Baseline-Series of behavioral observations during baseline
B-Treatment phase-Series of behavioral observations during treatment phase
-Ideal outcome is for behavior to change when A changes to B
Small N --Withdrawal Design
A-B-A (eg)Phil's token reward system is removed
-Tx is in place for a time & is then removed to determine if the rate of behavior returns to baseline
-If behavior does return to baseline then it is likely behavior is being directly effected by the Tx & not something else like maturation
-If behavior regresses vs. If behavior remains constant
Small N -- Reversal
A-B-A-B
-Built in replication-Treatment is evaluated 2 times
-Return to treatment phase-Exp. ends with Tx in place
(eg)Phil's token reward system is returned after is was previously removed
Small N -- Dismantling
A-BC-B-BC-C-BC
-Can see the result of 2 or more different treatments
-Is it 1 Tx(B), or the other(C), or the combination of the 2(BC) that affect behavior
Small N -- Multiple Baselines
-Baseline established & Tx is introduced at different times
3 Varieties-Multiple baselines can be established
(1)For same behaviors in 2 or more people (Across Subjects)
(2)For 2 or more different behaviors within the same person (Across Behaviors)
(3)For same behavior within the same individual, but in 2 or more different settings (Across Situations)
Advantage: Eliminates withdrawal or reversal
Disadvantage: Generalizing to other behaviors or situations, individual differences between subjects
Small N -- Changing Criterion
-Behavior is shaped-Systematic reinforcement of behavior until criterion is met
Limitations & Criticisms of Small N
Limitations: Failure to return to baseline-Withdrawing Tx
CRITICISMS:
-Lack external validity
-No statistical analyses are used
-Cannot test adequately for interactive effects
-Rely exclusively on frequency of response as DV
Small N Methodological Concerns
1)Baseline Concerns-primary concern is achieving stable baseline
2)Treatment Concerns-Only 1 variable can be changed
3)Length of Phases-Unequal phases - Baseline phase=7 days, Tx=14 days
-Carryover Effects
-Usually in ABAB & 2nd baseline-Cyclical Variations
Descriptive Designs
-provides description of variable
-Conclusions drawn from data address the relationship
-Can accumulate extensive evidence
-Does not attempt to explain why things occur or identify underlying causes
-Helps understand variables
2 Types
1)Survey Research
2)Observational Research
Survey Research -- General
-Aims to describe a variable
-Provides snapshot
-If you want to know something just ask
-Structured set of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or tendencies to act
4 Issues Must Be Addressed
1)Development of Questions
2)Assembly & Organization of ?
3)Participants of study
4)Administration of survey
Survey -- Types of Questions
1)Open Ended-Introduces topic-Allows flexibility for participant to answer-Difficult to summarize & analyze
2)Restricted(Closed)-Limits the # of response alternatives-Easy to summarize-Quantitative info
3)Rating Scale-Select rating on predetermined scale-How many categories-Easy to summarize & analyze-Easy to understand & answer
Survey--Organization & Assembly of Questions
-Demographic Questions
-Sensitive Questions
-Group topics together
-Formatting should be simple
-Simple vocab (8th grade level)
Survey -- Participants
Goal: Probability Sample
-Random
-Stratified-subgroups are proportionately represented in sample
-Cluster-randomly selects clusters of people having some features in common
-Select participants to whom questions are relevant
Survey -- Administration
1)Mail-Nonresponse Bias
2)InPerson Survey-Most common on college
3)InPerson Interview-More indepth-allows for followup
4)Telephone Interview-interviewer bias
5)Electronic Survey
Survey
-Disadvantages & Problems
Problems:
-Ambiguous questions
-2 questions in 1
-Leading questions
--conduct pilot test
Disadvantages:
-low response rate
-nonresponse bias
-social desirability bias
-difficulty summarizing
-self report
Observational Research - General
-Observe & systematically record the natural behavior of individuals in order to describe the behavior
-Behaviors must not be disrupted
-Requires subjective interpretations of behaviors
Types of Observations
1)Naturalistic Observation- Observing natural behavior in natural setting
2)Contrived Observation-Set up natural setting
3)Participant Observation- Interact with participants & observe behavior
Observational Research
-Types of Recording
1)Frequency Method-How many times did they engage in the behavior over a fixed time period
2)Duration Method-How much time did they engage in the behavior
3)Interval Method-Did the behavior occur during a specific time period
Observational Research
Strengths & Weaknesses
Stengths:
-Actual behavior is observed
-High external validity
-Flexibility
Weaknesses:
-Spying
-Describes behavior
-Snapshot
Nonexperimental Designs
-Addresses questions about the relationship between 2 variables
-Is there a difference between variables
-No Controls-No Cause & effect explanations
(eg)Are the verbal skills for 6yr old girls different from those of 6yr old boys
3 Primary Methods
1)Phenomenology
2)Ethnography
3)Case Studies
Ethnography
-The description & interpretation of the culture of a group of individuals
Macro Cultures-Ohio Amish
Micro Cultures-Hells Angels
Methods:
-in depth interviews
-observations
Phenomenology
The description of an individual, or a group of individuals conscious experience of a phenomenon
(eg)Survivors of world trade center
(eg)Describe interaction with caring and noncaring nurse
Method:
-In depth interview