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112 Cards in this Set

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When the independent variable is manipulated and tested between subjects
Independent groups design
When the independent variable is manipulated in a between subjects design and equivalent groups are made through random assignment
Matched groups design
Groups are formed because of their already existing subject characteristics
Nonequivalent groups design or
Ex post facto
When the independent variable is tested within subjects
Repeated-measures design
Different levels of the IV are administered to different groups of participants
Each participant has only one DV score, so they are not varied within each participant
Between-subjects
Different levels of the IV are administered to each participant
Each participant has as many DV scores as there are levels
Can vary both within and between subjects
Within-subjects
What test do you use when you have 2 separate groups of participants and you want to compare means from these groups?
Independent samples t-test
What test would you use when you have one group of participants being tested 2 times and you want to compare the means at the 2 different times?
Dependent samples t-test
Within-subjects and or matched groups
The variability of each of the sets of scores being compared ought to be similar
One of the assumptions in analyzing 2 level designs
Homogeneity of variance
Single factor--two levels, between subject design
Independent Samples t-test
Single factor--two levels, within-subject design
Dependent samples t-test
Single factor--more than two levels, between-subject design
Regular One-Way ANOVA
Single factor--more than two levels, within-subject design
Repeated Measures One-Way ANOVA
A variable for which a number of intermediate values exist
Ex.: dosage level of a drug
What type of graph is best to use?
Continuous variables
Line graphs - estimate in-between effects
A variable in which each level represents a distinct category and no intermediate points can occur
What is the appropriate graph to use?
Discrete variable
Bar graph
These members are led to believe they are receiving some treatment when in fact they aren't
Only measures the psychological effects
Placebo control group
These are often used in research designed to assess effectiveness of some program or psychotherapy
They are experiencing the problem, but not the program designed to alleviate it
They will receive treatment after
Waiting list control groups
They experience the same events as the experimental group except for one slight difference
Each member is matched to a member of the experimental, so time spent on events is constant
Yoked control groups
Indicate the amount of variability that occurred in each condition
Shown on bar graphs
Error bars
This test deals with nominal categories and the differences between observed and expected
Chi Square
This design involves any study with more than one IV
Factorial Design
The term "levels" refers to what in the factor?
The number of levels of the independent variable
How many conditions are in a 2 x 3 design?
6
When the row means or column means do not equal each other
Requires combining all of the data for each of the levels of that factor
Main effect
Occurs when the effect of one IV differs/depends on the level of another IV
Interaction
When there are both types of between-subjects and a within-subjects variable present
At least one must be tested between and one within subjects
Mixed factorial design
When a between-subjects factorial include both a manipulated IV and a subject variable
They can yield an interaction between the type of person and the environment
P x E designs
When a P x E design includes both a between-subjects and a within-subjects factor
mixed P x E factorial
Used to prevent confounding order effects
Counterbalancing
Variables that consist of some already existing attribute of a person (gender, age, trait)
Aren't really manipulated, but are of interest
Unable to draw causal inferences
Subject variables
Example of a P x E design, which measures both the nonmanipulated subject and manipulated environment
Interaction is the most interesting
Ex. Females performance on math problems in groups of females or a minority
ATI (Aptitude-Treatment Interaction) designs
There is no manipulation, so there can be no causation
Correlation
Both variables change in the same direction
High score on one relates to a high score on the other
Positive correlation
Variables change in opposite directions
It is an inverse relationship
Negative correlation
This correlation is used when both variables are interval or ratio
Pearson's r
This correlation is used when the variables are both ordinal
Spearman's rho
Provides a visual representation of the relationship shown by a correlation
Scatterplot
This weakens the correlation when this happens to one or both of the measured variables
Restricting the range
A portion of variability in one of the variables in the correlation that can be accounted for by variability in the second variable
Always positive
Found by squaring Pearson's r
Coefficient of determination r squared
Indicates the linear relationship between variables
Line of best fit
What are some caveats of correlations?
Only applicable for linear relationships between variables
May be misleading if the range is restricted
Have to be careful of this problem in correlations, for causation cannot be explained
Third variable problem
These attempt to statistically control for the third variable
post facto or partial correlations
Used to predict one variable based on the other
Regression
What is the equation for a regression line?
y = mx + b
y = bx + a
The variable that is being predicted in a regression (Y)
Criterion variable or predictor variable
The existence of the correlation by itself does not allow one to decide about the direction of causality
Directionality problem
Using this increases confidence about directionality in a correlation
Investigates correlations at several points in time
Cross-lagged panel correlation
Correlating between the items from two halves of a subtest
Should be high if test is reliable
Split-half reliability
Correlation between scores of test taken at two different times on the same measure
Test-retest reliability
The ability of a test to predict some future event
Tests what it is designed to measure
Criterion validity
Involves one criterion variable and a minimum of two predictor variables
Multiple regression
A multivariate technique where a large number of variables is measured and correlated with each other
Factor analysis
What differentiates true experiments from quasi experiments?
Degree of control
True experiments have random assignment of particular conditions and manipulated IVs while Quasi may have measured or manipulated IVs and probably lack random assignment
These exist whenever causal conclusions cannot be drawn because there is less than complete control over the variables in the study, usually because random assignment is not feasible
Quasi-experiments
Design where groups are not equal to each other at the start of the study and they also experience different events in the study itself
They are effective for evaluating treatments where random assignment is impossible
Nonequivalent control group design
Measures are taken for an extended period before and after the event expected to influence behavior
OOOOOTOOOOO
Interrupted time series design
where T is the interruption
What is the main advantage of a time series design?
It allows researchers to evaluate trends over time
Predictable patterns of events that occur with the passing of time
Trends
What are two ways to vary an interrupted time series design?
OOOOOTOOOOO
OOOOO OOOOO-- Combining the features of a nonequivalent control group design (control group) with the interrupted time series design (long-term trend analysis) OR
OOOTOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOTOO
Interrupted time series with switching replications
The treatment is introduced at two different points in time for the two different groups
More confident in generality
Interrupted time series with switching replications
Refers to information that has already been gathered for some reason aside from the research project at hand
Educational, hospital or commercial records
No problem with reactivity for it requires no consent
Archival data
Systematic examination of qualitative information in terms of predefined categories
Some archival information needs to undergo this
Content analysis
What are some problems with archival research?
Information on some part of the population may be missing
Experimenter bias - only selecting supporting records
What are some advantages of archival research?
The amount of information available is virtually unlimited
No reactivity
Knowledge that their behavior is being observed can influence their behavior in ways that yield a distorted result
Reactivity
Why is archival research quasi-experimental?
It does not allow for random assignment in between-subject designs
Applied research that attempts to assess the effectiveness and value of policies or specially designed programs
Program evaluation
A set of procedures for predicting whether a population of sufficient size exists that would benefit from the proposed program, whether that program could solve a clearly defined problem, and whether people would use it
Needs analysis
Someone in the community who has a great deal of experience and specialized knowledge about the problem at hand that is otherwise unavailable to the researcher
Key informant
Small group of individuals who respond to a set of open-ended questions about some topic, such as the need for a particular program
Focus group
Aimed at improvement and monitors the progress of some program and how people are responding
Formative evaluation
Overall assessments of program effectiveness
More threatening
Summative evaluation
The actual costs of a program are monitored in relation to those costs to the effectiveness of the program's outcomes
Cost-effectiveness analysis
How people perform and especially interface with equipment
Ergonomics
Name 5 categories of human error
Omission
Commission
Due to extraneous acts (distractions/ interruptions)
Sequential errors - wrong order
Time errors
Know a lot about the program and are closer to the problem but can be biased
In-house auditors
Are in need of the details about a specific program, but are free of local pressures
Outside auditors
Deals with developing theory
Broad explanations of behavior that can be generalized
Basic research
The goal is to use this to solve real-world problems
Applied research
Examines a small number of participants, in some cases only one
Small N designs
The extent to which the findings for the group apply to an individual
Individual-subject validity
What do small-N designs provide that large-Ns don't
Individual-subject validity
What are some practical problems with large-N designs?
Too expensive
Too many people
Too much time
Not needed to draw conclusions
Any procedure that uses behavioral, especially operant, principles to solve real-life problems
Applied behavior analysis
How are single-subject designs carried out?
No control group
The subject is compared to him/herself
ABAB design with baseline measure/withdrawal (A) and treatment (B)
Provides an in-depth look at a representative situation
Adds reality and meaning
Case studies
Baseline measures are established and then treatment is introduced at different times
Multiple baseline design
A behavior is developed by reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior
Shaping
In this design, the target behavior is too difficult for the person to accomplish all at once so it must be shaped in small increments
Establish baseline, then criterion is made increasingly stringent
Good for health-related behaviors such as exercise
Changing criterion design
Refers to whether a particular applied behavior analysis program has value for improving society, whether its value is perceived as such by the study's participants and the extent to which the program is actually used by participants
Social validity
Used when comparing the effectiveness of more than one type of treatment for the same individual
The treatments are given in random order to avoid any potentially biasing order effects
Alternating treatments design
Studies the behaviors of people or animals as they act in their everyday environments
Naturalistic observation
Characteristics of doing research in the real world
Greater validity, generalizability
Less control for extraneous variables
Less ability to differentiate IVs
Absence of control
Observer reactivity
What are some characteristics of doing research in the lab?
Greater ability to structure and control the experiment/extraneous variables
Problems with the contrived setting
Ability to control participant selection
Problems with generalizability
The researcher joins the group being observed, or at least make their presence known
Participant observation
Having preconceived ideas about what will be observed and having those ideas color one's observations
Observer bias
Predefined behaviors that observers are trained to spot
Behavior checklists
Measured in terms of the percentage of times that observers agree
Helps reduce bias
Interobserver reliability
Behavior is sampled at predefined times and only at those times
Time sampling
Only a specific set of events are recorded for observations
Event sampling
Measures taken of behavior, either indirectly or directly, when the subject is unaware of the measurement being made
Can reduce reactivity
Unobtrusive measures
Structured set of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or tendencies to act
Survey
Good surveys require what type of sampling and not this type of sampling?
Probability
Convenience
Each member of the population has some definable probability of being selected for the sample
Probability sampling
The proportions of important subgroups in the population are represented precisely in the sample
Stratified sample
What is the best feature of interviews?
It yields highly detailed one-on-one information
What is a big problem with written surveys?
Since they are sent by mail, the return rates are often low
Those who have strong opinions on the issue will most likely respond
A tendency to agree with statements
Can be biased if all items are worded favorably
Response acquiescense
A question that is structured so that it is likely to produce an answer desired by the asker
Leading question
When the question is asking two different things, but it is impossible to answer differently between them
Double-barreled question
The complete list of individuals from whom the sample will be drawn
Sample frame