Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sources of knowledge.
And the media.
Characteristics of Propaganda
Source of information has a vested interest in persuading you. This is why you must consider the source!!
Presentation of information is unbalanced.
Responds to critics though use of personal attacks rather than facts or reason.
Often attempts to manipulate through emotions or intimidation, rather than through facts or reason.
scientific research
a collection of systematic methods people use to produce knowledge.
why study methods?
To obtain knowledge allows you to become more critical of the scientific merits of technical reports/research.
what is science?
rationality and logic with systematic methods for observation. Goal is to develop knowledge. measurement, observation, replication, and verification. INFORMED SKEPTISICM.
Scientific inquiry.
what we are trying to manipulate/explain is probabilistic, where the presence of x means a more likely chance of y occurring. Y does not have to occur every time there is x, so individual exceptions do not disprove the rule
proper conduct and reguard for science.
Research needs to be interdisciplinary and give heed to practical problems.
Researchers strive to be honest about the possibility of error.
People should not expect perfection in scientific research; there is always error
an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality through organizing, classifying, explanation, and prediction. Theory helps us interpret facts.
involves the collection of facts.
Theory without method is no better than opinion. We could not verify the truth of ideas.
Method without theory produces useless “facts”. We would have no way of discerning whether facts are relevant.
pure/basic research
knowledge is intended primarily for the sake of science
applied research
oriented toward practical issues.
evaluation research
examines public programs and policies (do programs work, how well do they work, can they work better?)
quantitative research
concepts are assigned a numeric value. Emphasis is often on prediction.
qualitative research
emphasis on understanding the meaning of what goes on.
names given phenomenon in reality, intended to capture the essence of reality.
describes how we measure a concept. How would you measure sex, for instance?
something that can take on different values of a quantitative nature
dependent variable
the outcome variable
Independent variable
the predictor or causal variable
specific statements about the relationship between an independent and dependent variable. A null hypothesis assumes no relationship, and most statistical tests assume the null hypothesis
the research process
Research design
Data gathering
Analysis & Findings
New theory.
Using a theory to predict a fact
Starting with facts and then using them to create an explanation