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### 60 Cards in this Set

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 Naturalistic Observation observing people in their common, natural environment Correlational Studies Investigates whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related. ex) # of children and hours of sleep parents get a night Correlation Coefficient an indication of your ability to predict someone's standing on one variable if you know their standing on the other variable Positive Relationship + the variables go in the same direction Negative Relationship - the variables go in the oppostie direction The Third Variable Just because two things occur together doesnt mean they are casually related (another variable could explain the relationship) Independent Variable the thing we manipulate Dependent Variable the thing we are measuring The Quasi Experiment observe the consequences of a natural event to which participants have been exposed ex) divorce of parents and divorce later in life Cross-Sectional Design Groups of children/individuals who differ in age are studied at the same point in time ex) cell phone usage Cohort Effect an effect due to a certain group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments or historical events as they grow up ex) when cell phones were invented Longitudinal Design the same participants are observed repeatedly over time Selective Attrition non representative sample The Sequential Design the best choice groups of different ages tested at a set point over time (ev 5 yrs, etc) Reliability and Validity in Data R: consistent results over time V: measured what you said you were measuring Inferential Statistics we want to infer from our sample the values in the population stat signif : p<.05 When will a neuron fire when they get more yes than no excitatory-inhibitory>threshold Agonist excites, works like a NT (muscle movement) Antagonists inhibits a NT's release (botox) Left/Right Hemisphere of brain L: specialized for verbal ability R: specialized for spatial ability Lateralization process of the specialization of the two hemispheres Hindbrain Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla Limbic System controlling basic drives, like eating, and emotions Thalamus processes sensory info gateway to cortex Hippocampus important for memory Amygdala emotions Cerebral Cortex outter layer of the hemispheres and gives the brain its distinctive appearance Occipital Lobe vision Visual Cortex receives input from eyes Parietal Lobe in front of the occipital love and behind frontal love that is important for the sense of touch and the spatial layout of an environment Primary Somatosensory Cortex (homonculus) Temporal Lobe lower region of cerebral cortex that is important for auditory info Frontal Lobe the region at the front of the cerebral cortex concerned with planning and movement Prefrontal Cortex in the frontal lobes, important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality Association Areas integrate info from various sensory inputs with stored memories Corpus Callosum a fiber of axons that transmits info btw two hemispheres Peripheral Nervous System all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the CNS (somatic and autonomic nervous systems) Autonomic Nervous System regulates body;s internal environment by stimulating glands and by maintaining internal organs, such as the heart, gall bladder, and stomach (symp vs parasymp) Bogaert 2006 homosexuals and brothers study boys who didnt grow up in the same house as older brother still had an increased chance of being gay low/high 2D:4D ratios low 2D:4D= high testosterone low estrogen in utero exposure high 2D:4D= low testosterone high estrogen phenotype directly observable characteristics ex) hair color genotype genetic makeup of an individual Dominant effects the characteristics shown Recessive doesnt effect the characteristics shown sickle cell anemia must get both recessive alleles sickle cell trait can have only one and still exhibit the symptoms under certain conditions single genes categorical characteristics ex) blue eyes polygenic genes continuous characteristics ex) intelligence passive genotype/environmental correlations the home environment that parents provide is in part based on their own genes ex) professor's homes Evocative genotype child's genetics will affect the way others behave towards them ex) cute babies are interacted with more Active genotype environments children prefer and seek out will be those compatible with their genetic predispositions ex) athletic genes-->soccer sensation how sense organs respond to external stimuli and transmit the responses to the brain perception the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals that result in an internal representation of the stimulus absolute threshold the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before one can experience a sensation difference threshold the minimum amount of change required in order to detect a difference between intensities of stimuli cornea rigid, outter layer of eye lens flexible, thicker for closer, thinner for distant retina the thin layer surface of the back of the eyeball contains photoreceptors that transduce light into neural signals the opponent process theory a system of paired opposites red-green yellow-blue white-black the retinex theory our brains interpretation ex) rubix cube