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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Naturalistic Observation
observing people in their common, natural environment
Correlational Studies
Investigates whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related.
ex) # of children and hours of sleep parents get a night
Correlation Coefficient
an indication of your ability to predict someone's standing on one variable if you know their standing on the other variable
Positive Relationship +
the variables go in the same direction
Negative Relationship -
the variables go in the oppostie direction
The Third Variable
Just because two things occur together doesnt mean they are casually related
(another variable could explain the relationship)
Independent Variable
the thing we manipulate
Dependent Variable
the thing we are measuring
The Quasi Experiment
observe the consequences of a natural event to which participants have been exposed
ex) divorce of parents and divorce later in life
Cross-Sectional Design
Groups of children/individuals who differ in age are studied at the same point in time
ex) cell phone usage
Cohort Effect
an effect due to a certain group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments or historical events as they grow up
ex) when cell phones were invented
Longitudinal Design
the same participants are observed repeatedly over time
Selective Attrition
non representative sample
The Sequential Design
the best choice
groups of different ages tested at a set point over time (ev 5 yrs, etc)
Reliability and Validity in Data
R: consistent results over time
V: measured what you said you were measuring
Inferential Statistics
we want to infer from our sample the values in the population
stat signif : p<.05
When will a neuron fire
when they get more yes than no
excites, works like a NT (muscle movement)
inhibits a NT's release (botox)
Left/Right Hemisphere of brain
L: specialized for verbal ability
R: specialized for spatial ability
process of the specialization of the two hemispheres
Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla
Limbic System
controlling basic drives, like eating, and emotions
processes sensory info
gateway to cortex
important for memory
Cerebral Cortex
outter layer of the hemispheres and gives the brain its distinctive appearance
Occipital Lobe
Visual Cortex
receives input from eyes
Parietal Lobe
in front of the occipital love and behind frontal love that is important for the sense of touch and the spatial layout of an environment
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Temporal Lobe
lower region of cerebral cortex that is important for auditory info
Frontal Lobe
the region at the front of the cerebral cortex concerned with planning and movement
Prefrontal Cortex
in the frontal lobes, important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality
Association Areas
integrate info from various sensory inputs with stored memories
Corpus Callosum
a fiber of axons that transmits info btw two hemispheres
Peripheral Nervous System
all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the CNS
(somatic and autonomic nervous systems)
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates body;s internal environment by stimulating glands and by maintaining internal organs, such as the heart, gall bladder, and stomach
(symp vs parasymp)
Bogaert 2006
homosexuals and brothers study
boys who didnt grow up in the same house as older brother still had an increased chance of being gay
low/high 2D:4D ratios
low 2D:4D= high testosterone low estrogen in utero exposure
high 2D:4D= low testosterone high estrogen
directly observable characteristics
ex) hair color
genetic makeup of an individual
effects the characteristics shown
doesnt effect the characteristics shown
sickle cell anemia
must get both recessive alleles
sickle cell trait
can have only one and still exhibit the symptoms under certain conditions
single genes
categorical characteristics
ex) blue eyes
polygenic genes
continuous characteristics
ex) intelligence
passive genotype/environmental correlations
the home environment that parents provide is in part based on their own genes
ex) professor's homes
Evocative genotype
child's genetics will affect the way others behave towards them
ex) cute babies are interacted with more
Active genotype
environments children prefer and seek out will be those compatible with their genetic predispositions
ex) athletic genes-->soccer
how sense organs respond to external stimuli and transmit the responses to the brain
the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals that result in an internal representation of the stimulus
absolute threshold
the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before one can experience a sensation
difference threshold
the minimum amount of change required in order to detect a difference between intensities of stimuli
rigid, outter layer of eye
flexible, thicker for closer, thinner for distant
the thin layer surface of the back of the eyeball
contains photoreceptors that transduce light into neural signals
the opponent process theory
a system of paired opposites
the retinex theory
our brains interpretation
ex) rubix cube