Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
53 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Behavioral measure

direct observation of behaviors


ceiling effect

failure of measurement to detect a difference because it was too easy


confederate

a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment


debriefing

explanation of the purpose of the research that is givene to participants following their participation


demand characteristics

cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave


doubleblind procedure

neither experimentor or experimentee know who gets the independent variable


electronencephalogram

EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain


electromyogram

EMG measure of the electrical activity of muscles, including muscle tension


expectancy effect, experimenter bias

any intentional or unintentional influence the experimenter exerts on a subject


filler items

items included in a questionaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure


floor effect

failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult


functional MRI

uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain. fMRI provides info on the amount of activity of the brain


Galvanic skin responce

electrical condctance of the skin which changes when sweating occurs


manipulation check

measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a subject


manipulation strength

strong at first, you can tell the differences between the 2 goups


Bar Graph

uses bars to depict frequencies of responces, precentages, or means in two or more groups


Centeral Tendency

a single number or value that describes the typical or centeral score among a set of scores


Correlation Coefficient

an index of how strongly two variables are related to each other


partial correlation

correlation between two variables with the influence of a third variable statistically controlled for


Descriptive Statistics

stat measures that describe the results of a study; include measures of centeral tendency, variability, and correlation


Effect Size

extent to which two variables are associated. Magnitude of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable


Frequency Distribution

an arrangement of a set of scores from lowest to highest that indicates the number of times each score was obtained


Frequency Polygons

A graphic display of a frequency distribution in wich the frequency of each score is plotted on the verticle axis, with the plotted points connected by straight lines


Interval Scale

a scale of measurements in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size


Mean

the average of the scores


Median

middle score


Mode

most frequent


Multiple correlation

a correlation between one variable and a combined set of predictor variables


Nominal scales

a scale of measurement with two or more categories that have no numerical properties


Ordinal scales

measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum


Path analysis

used to develope models of possible relationships among a set of variables that were studied with the nonexperimental method


Pearsons product etc..

used with interval and ratio scale data. Provides the strength of relationships between two variables, also indicates direction of relationship


Pie chart

graphic display in which frequencies or percentages are presented of slices of pie


ratio scale

there is an absolute zero where the variable is absent


regression equations

math equation that allows prediction of one behavior when the score on another variable is known


standard deviation

the average deviation of scores from the mean


statistical significance

rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low probability of occurance


structural models

model of an expected pattern of relationship among a set of variables. The proposed pattern is based on a theory of how the variables are causually related to one another


variability

the amount of dispersion of scores about some centeral value


variance

measure of the validity og scores about a mean; the mean of the sum of squared deviations of scores from the group mean


type I error

incorrect decision to reject the null hypothesis


Analysis of variance (F test)

used to determine whether two or more means are significantly different


type II error

an incorrect decision to accept the null hypothesis when it is false


degrees of freedom

the number of observation that are free to vary to produce a known outcome


error variance

random variability in a set of scores that is not the result of the independent variable. Statistically the variability of each score from its group mean


Inferential statistics

stats designed to determine whether results based on a sample data are generalized to a population


Null hypothesis

variables are not related


power

the probibility of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis


probability

the likeluhood that a given event will occur


research hypothesis

hypothesis that is underinvestigation


statistical significance

rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low probability of occurance


systematic variance

variability in a set of scores that is the result of the independent variable; statistically , the variable of each group mean from the grand mean of all subjects


t test

a stat sig test used to compare differences between means
