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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavioral measure
direct observation of behaviors
ceiling effect
failure of measurement to detect a difference because it was too easy
a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment
explanation of the purpose of the research that is givene to participants following their participation
demand characteristics
cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave
double-blind procedure
neither experimentor or experimentee know who gets the independent variable
EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain
EMG measure of the electrical activity of muscles, including muscle tension
expectancy effect, experimenter bias
any intentional or unintentional influence the experimenter exerts on a subject
filler items
items included in a questionaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure
floor effect
failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult
functional MRI
uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain. fMRI provides info on the amount of activity of the brain
Galvanic skin responce
electrical condctance of the skin which changes when sweating occurs
manipulation check
measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a subject
manipulation strength
strong at first, you can tell the differences between the 2 goups
Bar Graph
uses bars to depict frequencies of responces, precentages, or means in two or more groups
Centeral Tendency
a single number or value that describes the typical or centeral score among a set of scores
Correlation Coefficient
an index of how strongly two variables are related to each other
partial correlation
correlation between two variables with the influence of a third variable statistically controlled for
Descriptive Statistics
stat measures that describe the results of a study; include measures of centeral tendency, variability, and correlation
Effect Size
extent to which two variables are associated. Magnitude of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Frequency Distribution
an arrangement of a set of scores from lowest to highest that indicates the number of times each score was obtained
Frequency Polygons
A graphic display of a frequency distribution in wich the frequency of each score is plotted on the verticle axis, with the plotted points connected by straight lines
Interval Scale
a scale of measurements in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
the average of the scores
middle score
most frequent
Multiple correlation
a correlation between one variable and a combined set of predictor variables
Nominal scales
a scale of measurement with two or more categories that have no numerical properties
Ordinal scales
measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
Path analysis
used to develope models of possible relationships among a set of variables that were studied with the nonexperimental method
Pearsons product etc..
used with interval and ratio scale data. Provides the strength of relationships between two variables, also indicates direction of relationship
Pie chart
graphic display in which frequencies or percentages are presented of slices of pie
ratio scale
there is an absolute zero where the variable is absent
regression equations
math equation that allows prediction of one behavior when the score on another variable is known
standard deviation
the average deviation of scores from the mean
statistical significance
rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low probability of occurance
structural models
model of an expected pattern of relationship among a set of variables. The proposed pattern is based on a theory of how the variables are causually related to one another
the amount of dispersion of scores about some centeral value
measure of the validity og scores about a mean; the mean of the sum of squared deviations of scores from the group mean
type I error
incorrect decision to reject the null hypothesis
Analysis of variance (F test)
used to determine whether two or more means are significantly different
type II error
an incorrect decision to accept the null hypothesis when it is false
degrees of freedom
the number of observation that are free to vary to produce a known outcome
error variance
random variability in a set of scores that is not the result of the independent variable. Statistically the variability of each score from its group mean
Inferential statistics
stats designed to determine whether results based on a sample data are generalized to a population
Null hypothesis
variables are not related
the probibility of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis
the likeluhood that a given event will occur
research hypothesis
hypothesis that is underinvestigation
statistical significance
rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low probability of occurance
systematic variance
variability in a set of scores that is the result of the independent variable; statistically , the variable of each group mean from the grand mean of all subjects
t test
a stat sig test used to compare differences between means