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45 Cards in this Set

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A - B - A - B design
like an A-B-A design except that a second treatment period is established (second B)
A - B - A design
a small N design in which a baseline period (A) is followed by a treatment period (B) followed by a period in which the treatment is reversed or withdrawn (second A)
A - B design
a small N design in which a baseline period (A) is followed by a treatment period (B)
absolute threshold
stimulus intensity sufficient for the participant to detect the presence of a stimulus
abstract
the first text material to be read in a lab report and the last to be written
applied behavior analysis
research using various methods to evaluate the effectiveness of various conditioning procedures in bringing about changes in the rate of response of some behavior
archival research
a descriptive method in which already existing records are examined to test some research hypothesis
baseline
the initial stage of a small N design, in which the behavior to be changed is monitored to determine its normal rate of response
behavior checklist
lists of behaviors with predefined operational definitions that researchers are trained to use in an observational study
case study
a descriptive method in which an in-depth analysis is made of either a single individual, a single rare event, or an event that clearly exemplifies some phenomenon
changing criterion design
a small N design in which the criterion for receiving reinforcement begins at modest level and becomes more stringent as the study progresses; used to shape behavior
closed questions
a type of question found on surveys that can be answered with a "yes" or a "no" or by marking a point on some scale
content analysis
a procedure used in descriptive research to categorize systematically the content of the behavior (often verbal behavior) being recorded
cumulative recorder
apparatus for recording the subject's cumulative rate of response in operant conditioning studies
difference threshold
occurs when stimulus 1 is just noticeably different form stimulus 2
event sampling
a procedure in observational research in which only certain types of behaviors occurring under precisely defined conditions are sampled
figures
in a lab report or description of research, there are graphs, diagrams, flow charts, sketches of apparatus, or photos
individual-subject validity
the extent to which the general outcome of a research study characterizes the behavior of the individual participants in the study
interobserver reliability
the degree of agreement between two or more observers of the same event
interview survey
a survey method in which the researcher interviews the participant face-to-face; allows for more in-depth surveying (i.e. follow-up questions and clarification)
method of adjustment
psychophysics method in which the subject adjusts the stimulus intensity until the stimulus is just barely detected or differences between two stimuli are just noticeably different
method of constant stimuli
psychophysics method in which stimulus intensities, either individually (absolute threshold) or in pairs (difference threshold), are presented in a random order
method of limits
psychophysics method that alternates ascending and descending series of stimuli; on ascending trials, the stimulus begins below threshold and is intensified until detected; on descending trials, the stimulus begins well above threshold and is decreased until it is no longer detected
multiple baseline design
a small N design in which treatment is introduced at staggered intervals when trying to alter (a) the behavior of more than one individual, (b) more than one behavior of more than one individual, or © the behavior or an individual in more than one setting
naturalistic observation
descriptive research method in which the behavior of people or animals is studied as it occurs in its everyday natural environment
nonresponse bias
occurs in survey research when those who return surveys differ in some systematic fashion (e.g. political attitudes) from those who don't respond to the surveys
observer bias
can occur when preconceived ideas held by the researcher affect the nature of the observations made
open-ended questions
a type of question found on surveys that requires more than a "yes" or "no" answer
operant conditioning
form of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences; a positive consequence strengthens the behavior immediately preceding it, and a negative consequence weakens the behavior immediately preceding it
participant observation
descriptive research method in which the behavior of people is studied as it occurs in its everyday natural environment and the researcher becomes a part of the group being observed
phone surveying
a survey method in which the researcher asks questions over the phone
psychophysics
one of experimental psychology's original areas of research; investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the perception of those stimuli; studies thresholds
rate of response
the favored dependent variable of researchers working in the Skinnerian tradition; refers to how frequently a behavior occurs per unit of time
reactivity
occurs when participants' behavior is influenced by the knowledge that they are being observed
representative sample
a sample with characteristics that match those same attributes as they exist in the population
sample frame
list of individuals from whom the sample will be drawn; with cluster sampling, a list of groups from which a sample of groups will be selected
shaping
operant procedure for developing a new behavior that underlies the changing criterion design; behaviors are reinforced as they become progressively close to final desired behavior
social desirability bias
a type of response bias in survey research ; occurs when people respond to a question by trying to put themselves in a favorable light
social validity
the extent to which an applied behavior analysis program has the potential to improve society, whether its value is perceived by the study's participants, and whether participants actually use the program
survey
a descriptive method in which participants are asked a series of questions or respond to a series of statements about some topic
tables
in a research report, these are summaries of data or descriptions of research design that are laid out in a row and column arrangement
time sampling
a procedure in operational research in which behavior is sampled only during predefined times (e.g. every 10 minutes)
unobtrusive measures
any measure of behavior that can be recorded without participants knowing that their behavior has been observed
withdrawal design
any small N design in which a treatment is in place for a time and is then removed to determine if the rate of behavior returns to baseline
written survey
a survey method in which the researcher creates a written questionnaire that is filled out by participants