Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anecdotal evidence
evidence from a single case that illustrates a phenomenon; when relied on exclusively, as in pseudoscience, faulty conclusions easily can be drawn
a way of knowing proposed by Peirce in which a person develops a belief by agreeing with someone perceived to be an expert
availability heuristic
social congnition bias in which vivid or memorable events lead people to overestimate the frequency of occurrence of these events
belief perseverence
unwillingness to consider any evidence that contradicts a stongly held view; similar to Peirce's principle of tenacity
confirmation bias
social cognition bias in which events that confirm a strongly held belief are more readily perceived and remembered; disconfirming events are ignored
a goal of science in which basic prinicipals discovered through scientific methods are applied in order to solve problems
belief of research psychologists that conclusions about behavior should be supported by data collected scientifically
a goal of psychological science in which behaviors are accurately classified or sequences of environmental stimuli and behavioral events are accurately listed
an assumption made by scientists that all events have causes
an assumption made by scientists that the causes of events can be discovered by applying scientific methods
effort justification
after expending a large amount of time or effort to obtain some goal, people giving the effort feel pressured to convince themselves that the effors was worthwhile, even if the resulting outcome is less positive than originaly thought
empirical questions
a question that can be answered by making objective observations
a way of knowing that relies on direct observation or experience
a goal of science in which the causes of events are sought
method used in the early years of psychological science in which a subject would complete some task and then describe the events occurring in consciouness while performing the task
regular, predictable relationships between events
said to exist when observations can be verified by more than one observer
a goal of psychological science in which statements about the future occurrence of some behavioral event are made, usually with some probability
a field of inquiry that attempts to associate with true science, relies exclusively on selective anecdotal evidence, and is deliberately too vague to be adequately tested
statistical determinism
an assumption made by research psychologists that behavioral events can be predicted with a probability greater than chance
a way of knowing proposed by Peirce in which a person maintains a biased view and refuses to alter it in the face of contradictory data
name traditionally used to refer to a human or animal research participant; humans volunteering for research are now referred to as research participants, while nonhuman animals are still typically referred to as subjects
pilot study
during the initial stages of research it is common for some data to be collected; problems spotted in this trial stage enable the researcher to refine the procedures and prevent the full-scale study from being flawed methodically
the extent to which measures of the same phenomenon are consistent and repeatable; measures high in reliability will contain a minimum of measurement error
to repeat an experiment; exact replications are rare, occurring primarily when the results of some prior study are suspected to be erroneous
representative sample
a sample with characteristics that match those same attributes as they exist in the population
research participants
any person who takes part in and contributes data to a research study in psychology
research teams
a group of researchers (professors and students) working together on the same research problem
some portion or subset of a population
all the members of an identifiable group
the process of making an accidental discovery; finding X when searching for Y
self-selection problem
in surveys, when the sample is composed of only those who voluntarily choose to respond, the result can be a biased sample
standard deviation
a measure of the average deviation of a set of scores from the mean score; the square root of the variance
stratified sampling
a probability sample that is random, with the restriction that important groups are proportionately represented in the sample
systematic variance
variability that can be attributed to some identifiable source, either the systematic variation of the independent variable or the uncontrolled variation of a confound
a set of statements that summarizes and organizes existing information about some phenomenon, provides an explanation for the phenomenon, and serves as a basis for making predictions to be tested empirically
Type I error
rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true; finding a statistically significant effect no true effect exists
Type II error
failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false; failing to find a statistically significant effect when the effect truly exists
in general, the extent to which a measure of X truly measures X and not Y (e.g., a valid measure of intelligence measures intelligence and not something else)
a measure of the average squared deviation of a set of scores from the mean score; the standard deviation squared
a postexperimental session in which the experimenter explains the study's purpose, reduces any discomfort felt by participants, and answers any questions posed by participants
a research strategy in which participants are not told of all the details of an experiment at its outset; used for the purpose of avoiding demand characteristics
reasoning from the general to the specific; in science, used when deriving research hypotheses from theories
that portion of debriefing in which the true purpose of the study is explained to participants
descriptive statistics
provide a summary of the main feature of a set of data collected from a sample of participation
that portion of debriefing in which the experimenter tries to reduce any distress felt by participants as a result of their research experience
effect size
the amount of variability in the dependent variable that can be accounted for or attributed to the independent variable
error variance
nonsystematic variability in a set of scores due to random factors or individual differences
a set of principles prescribing behaviors that are morally correct
experimental realism
refers to how deeply involved the participants become in the experiment; considered to be more important than mundane realism
replicating part of a prior study but adding some additional features (e.g., additional levels of the independent variables)
face validity
occurs when a measure appears to be a reasonable measure of some trait (e.g., as a measure of intelligence, problem solving has more face validity than hat size)
research strategy advocated by Popper that emphasizes putting theories to the test by trying to disprove or falsify them
falsifying data
manufacturing or altering data in order to bring about a desired result
field research
research that occurs in any location other than a scientific laboratory
frequency distribution
a table that records the number of times that each score in a set of scores occurs
graph of a frequency distribution in bar form
an educated guess about a relationship between variables that is then tested empirically
reasoning from the specific to the general; in science, used when the results of specific research studies are used to support or refute a theory
inferential statistics
used to draw conclusions about the broader population on the basis of a study using just a sample of that population
informed consent
the idea that persons should be given sufficient information about a study in order to make their decision to participate as a research subject an informed and voluntary one
Institutional Review Board
University committee responsible for evaluating whether research proposals provide adequate protection of the rights of participants; must exist for any college or university receiving federal funds for research
measurement error
produced by any factor that introduces inaccuracies into the measurement of some variable
measurement scales
ways of assigning numbers to events; nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
the middle score of a data set; an equal number of scores are both above and below the median
median location
the place in the sequence of scores where the median lies
the most frequently appearing score in a data set
mundane realism
refers to how closely the experiment mirrors real-life experiences; considered to be less important than experimental realism
nominal scale
measurement scale in which the numbers have no quantitative value, but rather serve to identify categories into which events can be placed
normal curve
a theoretical frequency distribution for a population; a bell-shaped curve
null hypothesis
the assumption that no real difference exists between treatment conditions in an experiment or that no significant relationship exists in a correlational study (H0)
operational definitions
a definition of a concept or variable in terms of precisely described operations, measures, or procedures
philosophy of science approach proposed by Bridgman that held that all scientific concepts should be defined in terms of a set of operations to be performed
ordinal scales
measurement scale in which assigned numbers stand for relative standing or ranking
a theory that includes the minimum number of constructs and assumptions in order to explain and predict some phenomenon adequately
partial replication
repeats a portion of some prior research; usually completed as part of a study that extends the results of the initial research
deliberately taking the ideas of someone and claiming them as one's own
The probability of rejecting H0 when it is false; affected by alpha, effect size and sample size
with reference to theory, this refers to the amount of research that is generated to test a theory. Theories that lead to a great deal of research are considered productive
programs of research
series of interrelated studies in which the outcome of one study leads naturally to another
qualitative research
a category of research activity characterized by a narrative analysis of information collected in the study; can include case studies, observational research, and interview
quantitative research
a category of research in which results are presented as numbers, typically in the form of descriptive and inferential statistics
in a set of scores, the difference between the score with the largest value and the one with the smallest value
ratio scale
measurement scale in which numbers refers to quantities and intervals are assumed to be of equal size; a score of zero denotes the absence of the phenomenon being measured
alpha level
the probability of making a Type I error; the significance level
alternative hypothesis
the researcher's hypothesis about the outcome of a study (H-1)
applied research
research with the goal of trying to solve some immediate real-life problem
to give assent it to say "yes." In the SRCD code of ethics for research with children, assent refers to the willingness on the part of the child to participate in the study
basic research
research with the goal of describing, predicting, and explaining fundamental principles of behavior
biased sample
a sample that is not representative of the population
cluster sampling
a probability sample that randomly selects clusters of people having some feature in common (e.g. students taking history courses) and tests all people within the selected cluster (e.g. all students in three of the nine history courses available)
a hypothetical factor (e.g. hunger) that cannot be observed directly but is inferred from certain behaviors (e.g., eating) and assumed to follow from certain circumstances (e.g., 24 hours without food
construct validity
in measurement, it occurs when the measure being used accurately assesses some hypothetical construct; also refers to whether the construct itself is valid; in research, refers to whether the operational definitions used for independent and dependent variables are valid
convenience sample
a nonprobability sample in which the researcher requests volunteers form a group of people who meet the general requirements of the study (e.g., teenagers); used in most psychological research, except when specific estimates of population values need to be made
converging operations
occurs when the results of several studies, each defining its terms with slightly different operational definitions, nonetheless converge on the same general conclusion
creative thinking
a process of making an innovative connection between seemingly unrelated ideas or events
criterion validity
in a regression analysis, this is the variable that is being predicted from the predictor variable (e.g., college grades are predicted from SAT scores)
critical incidents
method used by ethics committees that surveys psychologists and asks for examples of unethical behavior by professional psychologists
interval scales
measurement scales in which numbers refer to quantities and intervals are assumed to be of equal size; a score of zero is just one of many points on the scale and does not denote the absence of the phenonmenon being measured