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602 Cards in this Set

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Psychology is a science using the____of ___and ___; Statistics are essential for ___and ___psych tests.
Scientific methods of research design and stats; designing and evaluating psych tests.
Historical perspective of experimental psych; most significatn historical momen in psychology research was the first ____; cite the year this first took place in research psych.
Psychology lab founded by William Wundt in 1879.
Wundt brought together ____in ____, ___, and _____to create_____; What was Wundt's psychology like; prior beliefs before the past 25 yrs.
Earlier work in philosophy, physiology, psychophysics; psychology as a science; Used to think of Wundtian psych as being rather steril and narrow, not interesting.
Before last 25 years in relation to Wundt and perceptions/thoughts of his first experimental psych/research, thought of as sterile, narown and not interesting; related to introspection his methods and subject matter were considered____.
Unscientific (method of introspection), and too unscientific the subject matter of reducing consciousness to its elements; structuralist, reductionistic; Titchner was his student and brought structrualism and the instropection method to the US.
Recently, in the past 25 years, thought related to Wundt's psychology and understanding of his ideas has changed dramatically, why?
Wundt believed that experimental psyh has a very limited use; that methodlogy could not be used to study the higher mental processes such as memory, thinking and language.
Wundt believed that in order to study higher mental processes, this study could be accomplished through____ and could not be accomplished in an _____.
Cultural psychology; and not in an experimental setting or within the experimental psych field.
A contemporary of Wundt's was ____; who showed that _____could be studied using _____; Which _____did he study ____using good ____.
Hermann Ebbinghaus; higher mental processes could be studied using experimental methodology; He studied the higher mental process of memory using nonsense syllables and by utilizing good experimental methodology.
Name another contemporary of Wundt's____, who disagreed w/Wundt fundamentally; Describe Wundt's belief disputed by Kulpe related to thought and mental images.
Oswald Kulpe; Wundt beleived that whenever a person thought of something, an image of that thing formed in the person's mind, that is; there could be no thought w/o a mental image.
In contrast to Wundt's belief that thought of a something, an image formed in my mind; no thought could occur w/o a mental image; Kulpe strongly believed to the contrary____.
Kulpe believed that there could be imageless thought; and he performed experiments to prove his hypothesis.
And yet another of Wundt's contemporaries who studied ____, introduced ____to the ___.
James McKeen Cattell; under Wundt; mental testing, U.S.
Name the contemporaries of Wundt's; First, describe ideas.
Ebbinghause, higher mental processes could be studied in an experimental setting w/systematic control and good methods.
Name the contemporaries of Wundt's; Second, describe ideas.
Kolpe, opposed Wundt thought must accompany an image and purported there could be imageless thought, which could be studied experimentally.
Name the contemporaries of Wundt's; Third describe ideas.
Titchner, studied under Wundt and exported structuralism and method of introspection to the U.S. though the school and methods looked somewhat different than Wundt's.
Name the contemporaries of Wundt's; Fourth describe ideas.
James Cattell, studied under Wundt and introduced mental testing to the U.S.
Much later (year) came___with ____to publishe the first _____; Purpose of the test was to _____.
Binet in a collaboration w/Simon to publish the first Intelligence test (1905), the Binet-Simon test; Assess the inteligence of French schoolchildren to ascertain which children were too mentally rearded to benefit from ordinary schooling.
Binet also introduced the concept of ___or the ____, regardless of his _______.
Mental age, the age level at which a person functions intellectually, regardless of actual chronological age.
After Binet devised the Binet-Simon Intelligence test this person ___developed an _____to compare ____to ____; this came to be known as _____ or ___.
William Stern; equation to compare mental age to chronological age, known as the intelligence quotient, IQ.
Who revised the Binet-Simon test; for use where ____ and in which year, and was known as ___.
Lewis Terman, 1916; for use in the U.S; the Stanford-Binet Intelligence test.
Research Design: First step in research design involves _____and ____ or a ______and ___of the relations btw_____.
Step one, identifying a problem to study and formulating a hypothesis, or a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship btw two or more variables.
Hypothesis is a ___and ____of this ____.
Tentative and testable explanation of the relationship btw two or more variables.
A variable is a _____or ____that _____and can be ____; example.
Characteristic or property that varies in amount or kind, and can be measured, ie. ht, wt, mental abilities, physical abilities, personality character.
If a researcher is interested in the ___of ____, like breakfast on ____, academic performance, give an example of the hypothesis.
The effect of one variable , breakfast, on another variable, academic performance, hypothesis could look like, "If you have a good breakfast, you will perform better academically than if you do not have a good breakfast.
However, what does the researcher mean by a good breakfast? Or by, perform better academically; In other words what are the ____ which allows the researcher to_____.
Operational definitions; Defines the variables in the experiment so that the variables are measureable.
Operationally define, a good breakfast; and academic performance.
Good break, breakfast high in proteing; academic perf. number of correct responses on a spelling test.
Hypothesis; key concepts; definitions, concepts, hypothesis, variable, operational definitions.
A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship btw two orr more variables; a factor that varies in amount or kind and can be measured; state how the researcher will measure the variables.
Once an operationally defined variable is in place, the researcher can refine ____. New _____may be stated as___/
Hypothesis; New hypothesis, "Those who have a high-proteing breakfast will do better on a spelling test than those who have a low protein breakfast.
By creating an operational definition of the variables and through refining the hypothesis we now have a more ______: which is referred to as a ___.
Specific definition of hypothesis: Tentative and testable explanation of the relationship btw one or more IV and one or more DV.
IV and DV in this example. IV is the ___ on the _____.
Variable whose effect is being studied and is the variable that the experimenter manipulates; studying the effect of protein content in breakfast food on spelling performance; proteing content is the IV.
The DV is the___; DV is said to ___on the ____.
Response that is expected to vary w/differences in the IV; interested in how performance on the spelling exam, the DV, varies w/different levels of protein; DV depends on the action.
IV's number of IV in study and number of levels in the IV; explain the difference btw these concepts.
Levels of the IV are the values the IV has in a study; one IV, breakfast protein content, which may have multiple levels of protein content.
Concerning the levels of IV in proteing content; if one group of subjects has a low-protein break and another has a high protein break; there wold be _____; If one group is given a no-protein break, lower and high protein there are ___.
2 levels of IV, low and high; 3 levels of IV, none, low and high.
Independent and dependent variables; definition, example, type, IV, DV.
IV- the variable whose effect is being studied; breakfast type; DV the variable expected to change due to variations in the IV, spelling test performance.
Research types; Three basic types of research, name these.
True experiment, quasi-experiments and correlational studies.
To test the hypothesis in the breakfast example on academic performance, one strategy would be to go into an elementary school class and ____ and ____; this is done via a ____.
Give a spelling test, and ask each member of the class exactly what they had for break; from self reports figure out the proteing levels of the breakfasts.
In this example the researcher is not _____; therefore the study a a ____.
Manipulating the IV; b/c the researcher is not manipulating the IV and utilizing the self reports of the students related to protein break and then assign numbers to different levels to quantify, this is a correlational study.
Another experimental design the research could use w/the same class of children; is instead of allowing students to eat break at hom, research could have___.
Fed the students breakfst in the classroom.
Randomly assign the ___into___; which could consist of these levels of IV or experimental conditions; then following the manipulation of the IV in the groups give ____.
Students in the class into groups; half of the class to a break containg 3 grams of protein; the other half to a break that contains 10 grams of protein; then give the children a spelling test.
In this example of the children eating breakfast in the class along w/random assignment the researcher ___or ___the ____.
Controls or manipulates the levels in the IV.
True experiment
When the researcher uses random assignment and manipulates the IV as in the researcher giving break to the students and manipulating the protein level that each child receives.
Quasiexperimental design reearchers do not use ___and ____over the ___and therefore ____cannot be made.
Random assignment and lack sufficient control over the variables; definitive statements on causal factors.
Does the researcher maniipulate the IV, in which type of research designs___; are subjects randomly assigned to groups in which type of research designs___.
Manipulate IV yes in True and Quasi experiments, no in correlational study; Randomly assign to groups, Yes in True experiment, no in both correlational study and quasi-experiment.
So a quasi experimental design, which does not make use of random assignment lacks____whereby definitive statement on ____.
Sufficient control over the variables; causal factors cannot be made.
In the three types of research, correlational, true and quasi experiment, the researcher is interested in looking at the ____btw____.
Relationship btw at least two variables, IV and DV at minimum (one of each).
Naturalistic observation also known as a ___., what is the role of the researcher and restriction does not occur that does take place in correlational, quasi and true experiments.
Field study; the researcher does not intervene at all in what is being studied; the research is not restricted to the relationship that occurs btw at minimum two variables; Rather, the researcher is oberving what occurs naturally.
Types of research; characteristic, type, naturalistic observation, correlational, quasi-experiment, true experiment.
Nat., reearcher doesn not intervene; measures behavior as it naturally occurs; correlat., Iv not manipulated; Quasi, Iv manipulated, subjects not randolmly assigned to groups; True, IV manipulated, subjects randomly assigned to groups.
Populations and Samples; Theory of subjects to be studied compared to reality of who is utilized in research studies.
In theory researchers have many decision related to the ideal subject to study; reality is they use who is most convienent to study, usually students of intro psych class.
Before selecting subjects, researcers have to determine what ____; does the researcher hope to draw conclusion about __ or ___ or __ or ____/.
population the researcher wants to generalize the results to; All people, all elementary school children; all second graders; all second graders in NY City schools.
If a researcher is interested in studying a ____, for example ____; the researcher can run every_____.
Small enough group; all second grade students in a particular classroom; member of the population through the experiment.
However, if the population is larger, all second graders in the US, then this would be ___and ___ to run every____.
Too expensive and in reality not possible; member of the population of second graders through the experiment.
Sample
The only alternative to not testing every member of a given population is to run the experiment on a subset of the population.
How do researchers select samples from the population that they are interested in studying, through these two sampling techniques
Random selection and stratified random sampling
Random selection a technique that allows researcher to select a sample that is representative of the population of interestmeans that___
Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Stratified random sampling to aid reearcher in the selection of a sample that is representative of the population of interest is a tecnique of assuring that ___.
Each subroup of the population is randomly sampled in proportion to its size.
Populations and samples, explanation and concept, population, representative sample, random sample, stratified random sample.
Pop., the group the reearcher wishes to generalize results to; represen., sample is a nimitrue version of the populations; random, every population membr has an equal chance to be selected for the sample; stratified, relevant subgroups of the population are randomly sampled in proportion to size.
Researchers also have to decide which subjects will receive the different levels of the IV; name the three options.
Btw-subjects design, matched-subjects design, and within-subjects design.
Between-subjects desing allows for each___to be ___to ____; Subjects are ____to ___and subjects in a given ____do not ____ of ____.
Subject, exposed, only one level, each independent variable; assigned randomly, groups, subjects,group, receive the same level of the IV as members, another group.
Example of a between subjects design to assign randomly each subjects to groups w/a condition or level of the IV tx.
Some subjects assigned to the high proteing, other the low protein.
In a btw subjects desing of random subject group assignment for the IV condition we cold reasonably assume that the groups are ___that might ____, such as ___or ____.
Equal in terms of any subject variables that might affect our DV, intelligence, motivation.
However, statistical theory tells me that even w/____, it is possible that the ___might ____merely due___.
Random assignment, groups, differe on these variables (intelligence, motivation), specifically subject variables, due to chance.
Matched-subjects Design to assign the subjects w/differnt levels of the IV.
When experimenter matches subjects on the basis of the variable the the researcher wants to control.
Ex. of matced subjects design in relation to a strong relationship that exists pre experiment btw spelling test performance and intelligence.
Resercher may want to make sure that both groups have, on average, roughly the same level of intelligence; then the experiment matches subjects on the basis of the variable to be controlled; in this case, intelligence.
Matching of sujects on the basis of the variable that is necesary to contorl, intelligence, b/c there is a stron relationship btw spelling test perform and intelligence; give example of protein experiment.
Assume there are 12 subjects in the experiment, 6 subjects per group; subjects in one group are given high protein break, while the other group is given low-protein break.
Based on IQ scores of 12 subjects and the two conditions, low and high protein break, to isolate the effects of the protein break on academic perform, control for intelligence through matched-subjects design; explain the matching process of subjects to condition, low vs. high protein.
To match subjects, take the 2 top IQ's and randomly assign each one into the 2 groups high vs. low; the next two highest IQ would also be randomly asigned to the 2 groupls and so on.
The pairing ensures in the matched subjects desing that__
Both groups are approximately equal on the maching variable of intelligence.
Within subjects design also known as this___,
Repeated measures desing; Pair subject w/himself or herself by using the same subjects in both
By paring each subject w/him or herself by using the same subjects in both groups, the subject's own ____is the _____.
Performance is the basis of comparison.
Within subjects design the subjects own performance is the basis of comparison, demonstrate this process in the high vs. low protien ex.
Give all subjects a low break on day 1 and then give all a spelling tes; Then give all subjects a high break on day 2 and give all a spelling test.
What is the crucial thing to denote in a within subjects design or repeated mesures desing.
That each subject is exposed to more than one condition/
Concerning a within subjects or repeated measures design, ensuring that each subject is expose to more than one condition allows the researcher to ____of ____in ____from the ____, the level of ____.
Seperate the effects, individual difference, intelligence, effects of the IV, protein in the breakfast.
What is a problem that exists with the within subjects design in this example?
People may just do better on the second test b/c they are more familiar w/the test format
If all subjects have the highprotein break on the second day, the ___in ____may be due to _____rather than due to their ____; or they may do ____b/c of ____.
Improvement, performance, due to increased familiarity, the eam, breakfast; worse, boredom.
To eliminate the problem of test effects or boredom the experimenter can use ___ to ____.
Counterbalancing; counteract these order effects.
How is counterbalancing utilized in this example to counteract order effects of test experience or boredom that may occur on the second day, resulting in an increase/decrease of overall scores on day two.
Assign half of the subjects to experience the low break first, and the other half to experience the hig break first; All subjects will still ex both levels just in different orders.
Experimental designs; ex condition 1, experimental condition 2, one to one pairing; type; btw, matched, within.
Btw, ex 1 group 1, ex 2 group 2; one to one pair no; matched, ex 1 group 1, ex 2 group 2, one to one pair yes; within, ex 1 group 1, ex 2 group 1, one to one pairing not applicable there is only one group--group one is divided in half and first half receives low on day 1 and second half receives high on day 1; day two this is reversed to control for order effects.
Confounding variables; major goal of research is to figure out is there is a ____
Causal relationship btw the IV and DV; in other words, to find out if changes in the IV cause changes in the DV
In order to reasonably infer that a causal relationship exists, researchers need to be able to discount _____that could _____; these are called___.
Any other vraibles that could differentially effect the DV; Confounding variables.
Counding variables are defined as___.
Unintended independent variables.
Despite attempts to create a well-designed experiment, experiments can contain___
Counfounding variables.
Examples of potential confounds in the protein effects on academic performance; Bring subjects into lab and randomly assign to one of two conditions; subjects in group 1 given a high protein break; subjects in group 2 are given a low proteing break; give all the subjects a spelling test and subjects in the high protein group do better on spelling test than subjects in low group, is this a true experiment?
Yes, since we have manipulated the IV and randomly asigned subjects to groups.
In light of the fact that this is a true experiment can we infer a causal relationship btw amount of breakfast protein and spelling test performance? What needs to take place.
To answer that question, I need to be able to discount any other possible causes of the differences in spelling test performance btw the two groups.
What are potential confounds or other IV that are contributing to the effect of improved spelling scores?
Calorie difference btw the two groups? This could be a possible confound.
Control group design
This is a research design that uses a control group by treating both groups equally in all respects.
Control group design uses a control group by treating both groups equally in all respects except that the ___contains ____;
Cereal for one group (the control group) contains no protein.
Experimental group, what does the ceral contain for this group?
10 grams of protein.
Differences btw the control and experimental group.
Control is the group that does not receive the tx; the experimental group is the group that receives the tx.
If I run this experiment and find a significant difference btw the two groups what can be concluded; how were confounding variables controlled for?
Differnce btw the two groups cannot be due to differences in calories, b/c number of calories were held constant
The purpose of an experimental and control group is to___; which leads to more confidence in light of significant differences that occur btw the two groups, which we can conclude or report that the findings suggest___.
Control for confounding variables; other unknown IV's that would significantly effect the outcome of the DV; that it is the difference in protein content that is causing the difference in spelling test performance.
Non equivalent group design
The control group is not necessarily similar to the experimental group since the reseracher doesn't use random assignment.
What type of research is nonequivalent group design common___ and for what reason?
Educational research b/c can't randomly assign subjects to different classes.
Nonequivalent group desing means that the control group is not necessarily similar to the ex group due to lack of random assignment; ex in education; If a researcher wants to see if a new method for teaching reading is ____;researcher might assign the ____and measure_____from_____of study.
Better than the usual method; new method to one class and the usual method to another class; each subjects increase in reading skill from the beginning to the end.
Potential problems in research design name 4.
Experimenter bias, demand characteristics, placebo effect, Hawthorne effect.
Experimenter bias
The fact that due to his or her expectations, the experimenter might inadvertently treat groups of subjects differntly, may influence the results of the experiment.
Experimenter bias is the researcher infuencing the results w/expectations and unequivelant group tx; on the other hand, the experimenter might also let his/her ____.
Affect how the results of the experiment are interpreted.
Double-blinding
Is one way to control for researcher bias.
In a double blind experiment to control for researcher bias neither the ____nor the ____which____or which____.
Researcher who interacts with the subjects; subjects themselves, know which groups received the IV or which level of the IV.
Single blind experiment
If the subjects do not know whether they are in the tx or control group, but the researchers know.
Demand characteristics refer to any ____what the ____
Cues that suggest to subjects what the researcher expects from them.
These are overall effects of the ____on a ____ which equals _____.
Situation, subject's behavior; demand characteristics.
Assumption of demand characteristics is that if subjects have ____what the _____, they will ____; give ex.
An idea, researcher expects, perform as expected; researcher is studying problem solving skills; experimenter gets a baseline measurement of skill level.
Demand characteristics and example of studying problem solving skills w/the experimenter taking a baseline measurement of skill level then what takes place next.
After baseline measure, gives one group training on problem solving skills and allows the other group to watch TV; Subjects receiving the training
In light of this hypothetical experiment on study problem solving skills what are the potential demand characterisitcs?
Subjects receiving training might realize that the researcher expects them to do bettwer on the second test and may try to do well on the second test as a result.
Placebo effect is a special kind of ___; ex., testing a drug to see if it will reduce anxiety what is the result of people who are given a drug they___the drug ____; subjects who are given a ____and tell them that it ____, the subjects ____.
Demand characteristic; expect that the drug will be effective; sugar pill, that it will reduce anxiety, subjects anxiety wil usually decrease.
Hawthorne effect refers to the tendency of people to ____
Behave dfferently if they know that they are being observed.
How is the Hawthorne effect controlled for in experimental studies____?
Researchers use a control group design and observe both the control group and the experimental group.
External validity has to do w/how ____of an ____.
Generalizable the results, experiment are.
Concerning external validity, if the results of a lab experiment on helping behavior using college sophomores as research subjects cannot be _____and to____then the ___.
Generalized to people in general, behavior outside of the lab, study lacks external validity.
Potential problems in research design; explanation, possible remedy, problem, experimenter bias, demand characteristics.
Experiementer's expectations or attitudes that can affect results, double-blinding; Cues in research sitation that suggest to the subject what is expected, deception.
Potential problems in research design; explanation, possible remedy, problem, placebo effect, hawthorne effect.
A type of demand characteristic where a placebo has a beneficial effect on the subjects, control groups; The effect that being observed has on behavior, control groups.
Descriptive stats; name the two basic types.
Descriptive stats and inferential stats.
Descriptive stats is concerned w/ these four components in relation to these____.
orgainizing, describing, quantifying, and summarizing; a collection of actual observations.
Inferential stats researchers _____; That is inferential stats is concerned w/making____from _____to the____and providing ____>
Generalize beyond actual observations; making an inference, sample involved, research, population of interest, an estimate of popular characteristics.
Frequency distributions____and can be demonstrated through _____.
Graphs and charts to summarize the data collected.
Frequency distributions area ____of how ____; on the vertical axis is___and the horizontal axis is ___.
Graphic representation, often each value occurs; Frequency, weight or variable measured.
Measures of central tendency are also used in ____, to include these three measures, which each of these measures provide___.
Descriptive stats;include mode, median, mean; estimates of the average score.
Mode is the value of the most___in a set; If two values are tied or equal in being the most frequently occurring observation, the data has ___or is ____; can a distribution have more than two modes;
Frequent observation in a set of scores; two modes, bimodal; yes can have three, four or more modes frequency of observations that are equal;
What makes the mode different from the other two measures of central tendency?
Having more than one potential observation related to central tendency only can happen w/the mode, most frequently occuring observation/score.
What if all the values in a distribution occur w/equal frequency then the distribution is said to have____.
No mode.
Median is the middle value when observations are ordered from ____; the median is not the ____; the median is the number that ____.
From least to most or from most to least; halfway point btw the numerical value of the highest score and the numerical vale of the lowest score; the number that divides the distribution in half.
In other words, once the data is ranked in numberical order, the median should be the ____.
The number in the middle of the ranking.
If a data set contains an even number of data points, then to determine the median _____; mneumonic to remember med.
Must add the two middle most numbers and divide by two; the median on thehighway, divides the lanes in half; median of a data set divides the data set into two equal halves after ranked and order.
Mean is the
Numerical halfway point btw the highest score and the lowest score; or the arithmetic average.
How will extremem scores effect these measures of central tendency? Outliers affect the___.
Extreme scores; mean, median and mode differently.
In a data set w/outliers or extreme scores the median and mode____; the mean is the measure of central tendency most___;
Stay the same and often not affected drastically by outliers; that is the most sensitive to extreme scores.
If I have extreme scores in my data set and am interested in a ____any individual, then it makes more sense to use the ___instead of the___as my measure of ____.
A representative score; the median instead of the mean, measure of central tendency.
Measures of variability name three.
Range, standard deviation and variance
Measures of variablity is also known as the ____ of ___.
Dispersion of scores.
If the scores in the distributioon are all the same then there is___and if the scores are very spread out, the _____.
No variability; variability is high.
Range
The smallest number in the distribution subtracted from the largest number.
Standard Deviation provides a measure of the
Typical distance of scores from the mean
Variance is the ____of the ____and is a description of how much ____from ____.
The square of the standard deviation and is a descrtiption of how much each score varies from the mean.
If the SD is 5 the variance is ___; if the variance is 36 the SD would be ___. Both the SD and the variance must be either ___or a ____, since there can be no ____to these___.
25; 6; either 0 or a positive number, negative values, measures of distance.
Meaures of dispersion, description; measure, range, SD, variance.
Highest score minus lowest score; Average scatter away from the mean also the square root of the variance; the square of the SD.
Distributions, Percentiles and z-Scores; Knowing the SD of a distribution can actually be ____, especially if the_____forms a ____.
Quite useful, distribution of scores forms a normal distribution.
Normal distribution
Forms a symmetrical bell-shaped curve and is similar to the frequency distribution.
The normal distribution is similar to the frequency distribution, the ____gives the ___and the ____give____.
Horizontal axis, values (standard deviations; vertical axis, the frequency of the values.
If scores form a ___ and I know how many ____away from the ____, I can also determine what ____is at.
Normal distribution, standard deviations away, mean my score is, I can also determine what percentile my score is at.
Percentile, what does this tell me about a particular score.
Tells me the percentage of scores that fall AT or below that particular score.
If I score on the GRE Psych test at the 90th percentile, then
90% of test takers obtained scores at or below my score.
In the normal curve, the percentages at 1, 2, 3, SD above or below the mean are
68% will fall within 1 SD; 96% will fall within 2 SD and 4% will fall beyond 2 SD.
z-Score is another way of calculating how many____my score is.
SD above or below the mean my score is
To determine a z-score; state the formula
Subract the mean of the disribution from my score and divide the difference by the SD.
Negative z scores fall ___and positive z scores fall ___; example if the mean of a set of scores was 20, the SD 15, and my score was 50.
Below the mean; above the mean; my Z score would = 2 which is 2 standard deviations above the mean; 50-20/15 = 2.
To find percentiles for normal distributions, I need to figure out what percentage of scores occurs below the score in question; ex z = +1.0, what is the associated percentile.
The scores that occur below z scores of +1 can be divided into two groups.
What are the two groups that a z score of +1 can be divided into.
Those scores that occur btw the mean and a z score of +1 = 34%, and those that occur below the mean = 50%
The total % of scores below a z-score of +1 is___. Thus in a normal distribution, _____will fall____.
50% + 34% = 84%; normal distribution, 84% of scores will fall below a score w/a z-score of +1.
Finding the percentile occurring below a z score of -1; I know that ____of scores fall___.
I know that 50% of the scores fall below a z-score of 0 (which is equal to the mean);.
I also know that ____of scores fall ____of __ and __; then subract and figure out the percentage of scores.
34% of scores fall btw z scores of 0 and -1; subtract 50%-34% = 16%.
What would happen if I converted every score in a distribution to a z-score; calculating the mean of the z score distribution would equal ___and the SD of a distribution of z-scores would equal ___.
If I have a distribution of z-scores and clculate the mean and SD, the mean of the distribution of z-scores will always be zero and the SD will always be 1.
The fact that a distribution of z-scores that are used to calculate a mean and SD of the z-score distribution is ___in this case and in these cases.
Mean of the distribution of zscores will ALWAYS be zero and the SD will ALWAYS be 1; This is true regardless of whether the distribution is normal or not and regarless of the mean and the SD of the original distribution.
Percentiles and z-scores; key concepts; explanation; concept; percentile,
Indicates the percentage of scores that fall at or below a given score; if my score is at the 90th percentile, 90 percent of the scores fall at or below my score.
Percentiles and z-scores; key concepts; explanation; concept; z-score, normal distribution
Indicates the number of standard deviations my score is away from the mean; about 68% of the scores w/in 1 SD of the mean; 96% of the scores fall w/in 2 SD of the mean.
Scores can also be converted into____
T-scores.
The T-score distribution has a mean of ____and a SD of ___; ex a Tscore of 60 is ____.
Mean = 50; SD = 10; 1 SD above the mean.
T-scores are often used in ___b/c of their____.
Test score interpretation; nice round numbers.
In a normal distribution the measures of central tendency are____; explain why this is the case; in a skewed distribution the measures of central tendency are ____/
B/c the normal distribution is symmetrical and has its greatest frequency of scores in the middle the mean, median, mode are all equal; when the distributions of scores are not identical, mean, median, mode will not be equal.
Correlation Coefficients are anther type of _____that measure_____.
Descriptive statistics; to what extent, if any, two variables are related.
Two variables are related if knowing the value of ____helps me to_____; Correlations help me to understand the ___and degree of _____.
One variable helps me to predict the value of the other variable;Understand the relationship and degree of association btw two variables.
The correlation coefficient allows me to ____how well I can ___give the corresponding ____;The correlation coefficients ranges from ____.
Mathematically specify how well I can predict the value of the second varible given the corresponding value of the first variable; -1.0 to +1.0.
Positive correlation means that a _____tends to be associated with a ____. As the ___the ____.
Change in value of one of the variables, with a change in the same direction of the value of the other variable; value of one variable increase, the value of the second tens to increase.
Positive correlations demonstrate that a change in one variable in a given direction is associated w/ a change in the other variable in the same direction and this occurs in what fashion?
Linear.
Negative correlation is a change in ____tends to be associated w/ a change in the _____.So as the value of one variable ____, the value of second variable tens to___.
Value of one variables, in the opposite direction of the other variable; increases, decreases.
When the statement is made that two variables are correlated what is not being inferred.
A cause and effect relationship.
The correlation suggests this not this.
Relationship not a causal relationship.
Correlation coefficient tells me how _____. The closer a correlation coefficient is to ____the more sure____. If I have a perfect correlation either ____, then given a value of one variable, I can ___with___the _____.
Strong the relationship is; +1, -1, I can be of my prediction, certainty increases with the strength of the correlation coefficient; +1 or -1, with absolute 100% certainty predict the value of the second variable.
As the correlation coefficient moves closer to zero, the ____. If two variables have a correlation of zero, knowing the value of the first variable does_____.
Less sure I become about my prediction; not at all help me predict the value of the second variable.
Scatterplot
Is the graphical representation of correlational data.
Relationship btw college GPA and high school GPA; On a scatterplot the highschool GPA is represented on the ____; and college GPA iis represented on the ____
Horizontal axis (highschool GPA); vertical axis (college GPA)
So on the horizontal axis is the____ and on the vertical axis is the _______
Predictor variable; outcome variable or second variable.
Best-fitting straight line.
Once we have a scatterplot, we can draw this line through the dots.
What is the most important info to get from the scatterplot?
Direction or the slope or the line:)
Correlation is also the cornerstone of this technique
Factor analysis.
Factor analysis attempts to account for the ____found among____by seeing how ___.
Interrelationships, varous variables,groups of variables hang together.
In factor analysis related to correlation coefficients the correlation btw a variable and itself is___; to the extent that two varibles measure the ___the correlation btw the two variables___.
Correlation btw variable and itself is +1; same thing, correlation btw the two, will be high
In a correlation matrix of ____; look for variables that are____; a cluster of variables ____is assumed to be measuring the ___; this is call a ____.
Factor analysis; highly correlated with each other; highly correlated with each other is assumed to be measuring the same thing; the same thing measured btw two variables is a factor.
Factor
A cluster of variables highly correlated w/each other is assumed to be measuring the same thing; the thing = factor.
So in the correlation matrix to determine factors find the variables correlated w/another and then see how many other variables are related; the totality___
The total of all related variables is a factor.
Inferential stats allow us to use a ______to make____about the____.
Relatively small batch of actual observations, conclusions about the entire population of interest
We make these kinds of conclusion in ___for instance we conclude that an entire batch of soup doesn't have enough___, based on tasting___.
Real life; entire batch of soup (population), pepper. Generalize this variable of pepper to the entire batch base on only a sample taste w/one small spoon full..
Inferential stats is concerned w/____from___. These stats give ____for _____about____based only upon_____.
Making inferences, or generalizations, from samples to populations; powerful tools for making conclusions, populations based only upone data obtained from sample,
Inferential stats makes inferences or generalizations from sample to population and allows for conclusions to be drawn about a populations based upon data obtained from samples, while taking into account___
The possibility for error.
Significance test
One tool researchers use to draw condlusions about populations based upon reserach conducted on samples.
In a significance test to draw conclusions about populations bbased upon research conducted on samples; the researcher is trying to show that ____(give both terms) is ____other___, are.
One hypothesis (the research hypothesis or the alternative hypothesis; supported by the data by showing that the other possible hypotheses (the null) are inconsistent w/the data collected.
How are experimental hypetheses confirmed?
By disconfirming the null hypothesis
By disconfirming the null this means that date___.
Do not support the null and this is demonstrated by disconfirming;
The null states that___
The population mean is the same as the sample mean.
Example of significance testing in the effect of gender on problem solving skills; subjects are 25 men and 25 women, task measuring problem solving skills is a list of 15 logic problems; the DV___; the IV is ____.
DV is the number of problems solved; IV is gender;
The research hypothesis in the problem solving example states ___; the null hypothesis is_____
That gender has an effect on problem solving skills; null states that there is no difference btw the mean problem solving score for the population of mean and the mean problem solving score for the population of women.
In significance testing, we test our ____against the _____.
Null hypothesis against the data we obtained from our sample.
In testing the null hypothesis against the data obtained from my sample if the two groups in my experiment differ on the ____what could this difference reflect, three potential outcomes?
Dependent variable measured; a real difference or a difference due to chance or randon error.
Differences in the DV measured could reflect a real difference, difference due to chand or random error; If the mean score of the women is 8 and the mean score of the mean is 10, difference btw means is ___. Significance tests can help to determine this___.
Difference btw DV means of gender is 2; Determine if a 2 pt difference is a real difference, or due to chance.
A significance test can tell me the ____that my ____; that is the ____.
Probability, observed difference is due to chance; probability that I could have obtained such a difference if my null that there is o difference btw the 2 groups, was true.
If it was unlikely that the 2-point difference was due to chance, then I can ____;I can then conclude that ____ as compared to____.
Reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative or the research hypothesis; that men are better on problem solving taskes when compared to women's ability in problem solving tasks.
If the significance tells me that the probability my observed difference is due to___, I can _____.ex. if I found that there was a 97% probabilty that the observed difference btw the 2 groups was ___, I would conclude that_____.
Chance is high; accept the null and reject the alternative/research hypo; due to chance, I would conclude that the difference observed does not reflect a true difference btw the m/f populat
A low probability in sig. test. means that it is ____that the observed difference is ____; then, I would strongly suspect that my ____was at least____; I could then____.
Unlikely, due only to chance;that my IV, pratially responsible for my observed difference; reject the null and acceetp the research.
If I reject the null, the observed difference is____
Statistically significant.
Statistical significance is decided on, probability represented in to determine statistically significance of the study is decided_____by establishing a _____/
Collecting data; criterion of significance.
Crterion of significance to establish prior to collecting data what probability represents statistically significance; psychologists by convention usually use ____as their_____.
5%; criterion of significance.
By establishing a criterion of significance at 5% demonstrates that most psychologists are ____
Willing to reject the null only if assured that observed differences are not due solely to chance;
Obtain a significance level equal to or less than 5% (the criterion of significance), the results are said to be____; more than the 5% criterion of significance in differences observed btw two DV's then_____.
significance level at 5% or lower, results are statistically sign, reject the null; results are not staistically significant and must accept the null.
Alpha level is known as the___>
Criterion of significance.
Significance testing process; 6 steps; name 1-4.
1) formulate alternative and null based on my research hypothesis; 2) Decide on an alpha level (criterion of sign, typically 5%); 3) Collect data; 4) Perform significance test on my data in order to obtain the significance level.
Significance testing process; 5 & 6.
5) Compare the obtained sign. level to the crterion of sign (alpha level). if the sign level is less that the criterion of sign, the results are stat. sign; otherwise the results are stat. insignificant; 6) If the results are stat. sign., reject the null; if results are stat. insign. accept the null.
Errors in significance testing
In the process of testing the statistical sign. of research results, ther possibilities of error.
Two types of errors in sign. testing a researcher could make:
Type I or Type II errors.
Type I error takes place when the researcher
Rejects the null, thus accepting the research hypo; but in the actual situation the null is true.
Type II error takes place when the researcher
Accepts the null and in the actual situation the null is false and the alternative or research hypo is true.
In a type I error where the null is rejected and the alternative accepted; in the actual situation there is no difference btw
The population values mentioned in the null hypothesis and a stat sign result was obtained just by chance.
Type I error states that a significant result was obtained by chance and that the
Null should not have been rejected; meaning that a true null was rejected.
Likelyhood of making a Type I error is the same as this___.
Criterion of significance the researcher chooses; or the alpha level the reseracher chooses.
Ex. of criterion of sign. at 5% and chance of committing a Type I error
Researcher chooses a criterion of 5%, then ther is a 5% chance of making a Type I erro.
With a 5% criterion, if the null hypo is rejected, there are ___.
5 chances out of 100 that the decision is wrong.
Type II error indicates that a ____and the ____even though the ___was___.
Statistically insignificant result was obtained and the null was accepted; null was false.
What is the probability of making a Type II error.
Probability of making Type II error is called beta.
Purpose of significance testing is to____
Make an inference about a population on the basis of sample data.
Statistical sign cannot tell me anything about whether or not the ____; or whether or not the ____.
Research is poorly desinged; results are trivial or meaningless.
Sample size is related to___; the larger the ____the ___the _____in order to be____/
Significance levels; the larger the size of the sample, the smaller the difference btw the groups has to be in order to be sign.
If I use a larger samples size and get a ____, what is the difference in the DV's; would the results be robust or meaningless?
Large sample size and a statistically sign result means that the difference btw the groups on the DV measure might be so small as to make the results trivial.
Types of significance tests; three kinds of sign tests may appear on the GRE.
T-test, ANOVA and chi-square test.
T-test are used to ____.
Compare the means of two groups.
For more than two groups, this is used.
ANOVA
A chi-square test tests the ___.
Equality of two frequencies or proportions.
ANOVAs estimate how much ____by comparing the ____to the _____using a ration, called the___.
Group means differe from each other, between-group variance, within-group variance; F ratio.
Show the F ratio
F ratio = Btw group variance estimate/within group variance estimate.
In the breakfast protein ex.; establish groups receiving high proteing, medium protein and low protein diets; if the protein level doesn't make a defference on___, I can expect an ___near___.
Spelling test scores; F ratio near 1.
In other words, the ___on ___are about the ____and should therefore be about the ____, regardless of the ____.
Mean scores, spelling test scores, same for each group, the same as the difference btw individuals within each group, level of protein in the breakfast
Another ex., the variance within the groups is low; children receiving low-protein break all score___; children receiving medium protein all socre in the ___; children receiving hig protein all score relatively __.
Low protein = low score; medium protein = medium score; high protein = high score.
Variance within the groups is low related to protein condition and scores; however variance among the ____is ____; the low protein is ___ as compared to the ____; the medium protein group scores ___as compared to the ____.
Means of the groups is compratively high; mean score of low = low as compared to the medium; medium mean score = low as compared to the high.
When within group differences are minimal and btw group mean differences are large, I would expect the value of __to be___and more likely to be___.
F, larger, be statistically significant.
ANOVAs can also be used to determine if ther is any _____.
Interaction btw two or more IV's.
Interaction and the ANOVA; in the break ex gender can be added as a second IV; F do better on tests on average if given a___. M actually did better when given a ____.
High protein breakfast; low protein breakfast.
In light of the data, if I was asked whether it was good to have a high proteing break b4 taking a spelling test, my answer would state that___.
It depends on whether you're female or male.
Why does eating a high protein breakfast and the effect on spelling test performance depend on whether I am M or F.
B/c there is an interaction btw the two independent variables.
An interraction occurs whenever the ___of one ____are not _____.
Effects, one IV, not consistent for all levels of the second IV; example IV M not consistent for high level (IV); F not consistent w/low level (IV).
ANOVAs can asess___ and this tecnique helps ascertain if the ____.
Interactions; IV influenced the DV.
Chi-square tests are ___that work w/___, rather than____.
Significance tests; categorical data; numerical data.
Most often the DV is usually associated or measured by___, ex. spelling test; when data collected are not___but ____, such as____and I am making ___, I can use the___.
A numerical score; # of correct answers on spell test; numbers, names or categories, male or female, inferences about the data of this type, a chi-square test.
Nominal
Categorized measurement
Categorized measurement or nominal measurement involves___.
Clasifying or naming not scoring or obtaining a numerical outcome.
Types of sign tests; use/explanation; type, t-test; Anova (2 types), chi-square test
T, use when I have 2 groups; ANOVA, use for more than 2 groups, 2 types 1) Factorial design, each level of a given IV occurs w/each level of the other IVs; 2) Interaction, when theeffects of on IV are not consitent for all levels of the other IVs; chi, use when individual obeservations are names/categories.
Meta analysis
Is a statistical procedure that can be used to make conclusions on the basis of data from different studies.
Ex. of meta-analysis; if researcher A publishes a study on therapy outcomes and researcher B publishes similar study using ___, we can use ___to ___the ___and come up w/____.
B publishes study using different methodology from A but similar study; use meta-analysis to combine the results of these studies, a more general conclusion.
Tests and measurements; score interpretation; stats not only help in the analysis of data after collection, but also when we _____used to___.
Design and evaluate the psychological tests that we use to collect data.
Standardized tests and measurements measure human
Attitudes, motivation, personality traits, or abilites.
Norm reference testing (2 ways)
Two ways that test results can be interpreted: norm referenced and domain referenced.
Norm referenced testing involves assessing an ____in terms of how____.
Individual's performance in terms of how that individual performs in comparison to others.
Ex. of norm referenced test in individual performance in terms of how the individual performs in comparison to others; Erika did better in ___
Spelling than 99% of second greaders tested; Erik'as performance as an individual test taker are compared to the test norms.
Test norms are derived from ____; the ___s/b ___and____of the ____to whom the ____.
Standardized samples;samples, large, representative, population, the particular test will be administered.
A problem w/ norm referenced testing is that the ___. If the ____then the _____.
Population to whom the tests will be administered can, and often does, change; Population of interest changes, original standardization sample would no longer be representative of the population.
Two ways that test results can be interpreted
Norm referenced and domain referenced in the interpretation of test results.
Domain referenced testing also known as___; is concerned w/the question of what the test taker ____.Performance on such a test is decribed in terms of what the tes taker ____.
Criterion-referenced testing;knows about a specified content domain; what the test taker knows or can do.
An example of crtierion referenced or domain reference testing is___; what is important on this specific test is not how I ____, but whether I have ______.
The written test for a driver's license; how i score in relation to my peers as with norm referenced testing, but whether I have mastery of the rules of the road.
Reliability
Is the consistency w/which a test measures whatever it is that the test measures.
High reliability means that the test___; Individual would score___; however in practice no test is ____.
Test measures are dependable, reproducible and consistent; an individual to score about the same when retested on the same test or a comparable form; perfectly reliable.
What makes a good test? One way to deetermine whether a test is good is to thing about ____.
How close a person's scores is to his or her true score.
Standard error of measurement (SEM) is an indes of how much
How much on average we expect a persons observed score to vary from the score the person is capable of receiving based on actual ability.
The best SEM would be___; but since no test is ___this is not___. Therefore, the smaller the tests____the ___.
Zero, perfect, possible; SEM, better.
Essentially, SEM or standard error of the measurement provides info
Regarding a test reliability.
Three basic method used to establish the reliability of a test
Test-retest; alternate form method; split half reliability.
Test retest, what does this method estimate?
Administered to the same group of people twice; the inter-individual stability of test scores over time.
Alternate form method
Given two different forms of a test that are taken at two different times
Split half reliability
Test takers take one test, the one test is divided into equal halves.
Equal halves of tests in split half reliebility are ___
Scores on one half are correlated w/the scores on the other half.
In all of these methods, a correlation coefficient is ____using the ____; A _____indicates a____.
Then clculated using the pairs of scores; A high poitive correlation +.80, a high level of reliability.
Methods of assessing reliability; correlation between first score and second score; type of reliability, test retest, alternate form, split half
Test-re, 1 score = test 1, 2 score = test 1 (same test given to same person 2nd time), correlate; alternate, 1 score = test 1, 2 score = test 2, correlate; split-half, one test w/ score on one-half of test 1 correlated w/ score ont the other half of test 1.
Validity is concerned w/ the extent to which a test actually
Measures what it is purports to measure.
All types of validity assessment examine the relations btw
Performance on the test in question and other independent and objective sources of info about the knowledge or behaviors or interest.
The evidence used to determine validity depends on
The nature of the test itself and more specifically, what the test is used for.
Types of validity name 4.
Content, face, criterion, construct.
Content validity
Referes to the tests coverage of the particular skill or knnowledge area that it is supposed to measure.
Thus content validity refers to the notion that if a test is supposed to measure ___the test should include questions about___.
Knowledge of 20th C american history; include questions about 20th century American history.
Face validity refers to whether or not the test items
Appear to measure what they are supposed to measure
If I am interested in measuring knowledge of 20th c American history, but I give subjects a test on 20th century European history
Test will lack face validity.
Criterion validity has to do w/how well the test can
Predict an individual's performance on an established test of the same skill or knowledge area.
Cross validation in association w/ criterion validity involves testing the
Criterion Validity of a test on a second sample, after validity was demonstrated in the intial sample.
Construct validity also includes two additional types of validity
Convergent and discriminant
Construct validity referes to how well performance on the test fits into the
Theoretical framework related to what it is I want the test to measure.
Ex of construct of social adeptness and its relationship to intelligence, then in order for my test of social adeptness to have construct validity,
People who score high on ymy test of social adeptness should also score high on tests of intelligence; convergent validity
Convergent validity demostrates the w/an associated construct of the measure tested, an individual should____.
Score high on similar tests that assess constructs that are related to the construct of the test under validation.
Discriminant validity is the second component of construct validity that demonstrates that performance on the test is not___
Correlated w/other variables that the theory predicts that test performance (or the construct) should not be related to.
What we want to know; 1) Does the test measure various facets of American History? 2) Does the test look like it measures knowledge of American history? 3) Does test performance indicate number of pervious American history courses taken? 4) Does test performance predict future success as history major.
Type of validity were concerned; 1) content; 2) face; 3) criterion, concurrent; 4) predictive
What we want to know; 5) Is test performance related to, interest in history; 6) Is test performance not related to test taking experience.
Type of Validity Were concerned; 5) construct, convergent; 6) discriminate
A test w/ zero reliability will have ___; however a test can have perfect __-and ___.
Zero validty; perfect reliability and very little validity.
Therefore, reliability is a ___, but the ___;
Precondition for validity, but the opposite is not necessarily true.
Ex of precondition of reliabilty for validity meaning that reliabilty is necessary for validity but not sufficient; I want to measure creativity by asking chil to swim as far as they could. This test would have ___, that is ___ the child wold probably ___; however my test would ___.
High reliability; b/c if repeated the child would swim about the same distance each time; however, test is not a valid measure of creativity; reliability is necessary for validity to occur but not sufficient.
Scales of measurement four types of measurement scales
Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Nominal also called a ___;
Categorical scale; labels observations so that observations can be categorized, demo repub, M, F.
ordinal scale
Observations are ranked in terms of siz or magnitude; highest score on spelling test, second highest score and so on; rank and order.
Interval scale
uses actual numbers (not ranks) such as the number correct on a spelling test, not as in ordinal who scored highest, 2nd highest and so on.
Ratio scaling,
Unlike interval scales, there is a true zero point that indicates the total absence of the quantity being measured; temperature of 0 doesn not mean there is not temp and is not considered a ratio scale.
Multiplication and division are meningful only on measurements made using
Ratio scales
Subtraction and addition are meaningful on
Both ration and interval scales; b/c it makes sense, to say that at temp. of 30 is 60 less than a temp of 90; related to multiplication and divison it makes no sense tosay that 90 is 3X as hot as 30.
Scales of measurement; characteristic; example; arithmetic operations; scale type, nominal/categorical, ordinal, interval, ratio.
Nom, names, political affiliation no arithmetic operat; ordinal, ranks, rder of finish in horse race, no arithmetic oper; interval, equal intervals, temp, addition/subtraction; ratio, equal intervals + true zero point, income, all arithmetic operations add/sub/mult/div
Ability tests two types
Aptitude tests and achievement tests
Aptitude tests are used to
Predict what one can accomplish through training
In other words aptitude tests are used to__; aptitude tests include these types of tests___.
Predict future performane; intelligence tests
Achievement test in contrast to apptitude tests attempt to
Assess what one knows or can do now; they can test adequacy of learning content and skill.
IQ is a well known measure of ___using an equation ___.; define the formula to attain an IQ score.
Intelligence aptitude, uses an equation comparing mental age to chronological age; mental age/chronological age, multiplied by 100.
Ration IQ, problem with based on age; what age increases and what age does not.
After a certain age, chronological age increases while mental age does not; therfore, even if my mental age remains constant, my IQ will decrease w/age.
Deviation quotients; developed to get around the problem of mental age remaing constant while chronicological age increases; though mental age may remain constant, IQ decreases w/age; which intelligence measure uses the deviation quotients and what yr
The 1960 revision of the Standord Binet used deviation quotients
Essentially, a deviation IQ score tells me how___for the ____; thus, deviation IQ represents the _____.
Far away a person's score is from the average score for the particular age group the subject is a member of; Individual's standing among his or her same aged cohort.
The Intelligence Quotient; Definition; type of IQ, ratio IQ, deviation IQ
Mental Age/Chronological Age X100; Indicates how well a person performed on an IQ test relative to her/his same age peers.
Wechsler tests compaired to Stanford-binet.
W tests have all items of a given type grouped into subtests; Stan, is organized by age levels
Weschler items of a given type are grouped into subtests and theses items are arranged ____within___.
In order of increasing difficulty w/in each subtest
name the two broad subscales of the Weschler Intelligience tests.
Verbal and performance scale
Verbal scale is based on____; performance scale which is derived from ___.
V, information, vocabulary and similar skills; p, from tests of manipulateive skill,, eye hand coordination and speed.
All of the Weschler IQ tests,3, can be used on these age groups
WPPSI, preschool; WISC, 5-16; WAIS-IV, 16 and older.
Personality Tests; personality inventories
Self rating device usually consisting of 100-150 statments
In presonality inventories the subject is asked to ____; these are __tools and are ___, however the ____.
Determine if the given statements apply; structured tools are quite reliable, the veracity of responses is not guaranteed.
What affects a subjects response style and impedes an honest assessment of the persons current functioning.
Social acceptability/desirability.
Ex of social acceptability/desirabilty response style; an item that states, I occasionally steal how do most people answer this question?
Most people would tend to anwer no regardless of whether or not they occasionally steal.
Magjor personality inventories is the MMPI which consists of ____to which subjects respond in three ways
550 statements; true, false or cannot say.
The MMPI yelds scores on ___, measuring things such as____; It has scales that can indicate whether the person is _________and whether it is being done_____.
On 10 clinical scales, depression, schizophrenia, and mas/fem; can indicate, careless, faking, misrepresentation, distoring responses; intentionally or unintentionally.
High scores on one of the scale can lead to___; the purpose of the MMPI is to aid in the ___.
The rejection of the test record; assessment of various clinical disorders.
Hathaway and McKinley in the development of the MMPI, used the____
Empirical criterion keying approach.
Empirical criterion keying approach involved Hathaway and McKinley to test___
Thousands of questions and retained those that differentiated btw pt and nonpt populations;
Hathaway and McKinley's approch to differentiate btw a clinical and nonclincial population by testing thousand of questions and retaining the questions that differentiated even if the item didn't appear to____; authors also examined the ____.
Kept the item if it differentiated btw clinical/nonclinical pop, even if the item didn't seem to have anything to do with abnormality;exained the responses of patient groups w/differentdiagnoses.
After the authors examined the responses of pt groups w/different diagnoses, each____formed the _____
Each criterion groups responses formed the basis of a particular clinical scale.
Differentiated btw clinical/nonclinical; kept questions that were answered from clinical; examined pt groups w/differential diagnosis;criterion group responses basis of clinical scale so that if a____
so that if a new pt answered questions in the same way that a depressive criterion group did, that pt would receive a high depression score.
Content scaled added to the MMPI when? Scales were formed using items ____..
A revision of the MMPI to the MMPI 2 (1989); using items derived from theoretical concerns
Content scales were formed w/items derived from theoretical concerns rather than from ____; ex. to form low self esteem content scale, the test authors selcted _____.
Empirical criterion keying approach; low self, selected items that ought to be related to low self esteem.
Thus with the new content scales not based on empirical criterion keying as in the original test construction develped by Hathaway and McKinley; the theoretical influence of constructed test items has allowed for the original_____.
Clinical scales have been supplemented w/content scales that were develope using a more theorectical approach vs a clinical, empirical criterion keying approach.
CPI; California Psychological Inventory is another personality inventory that is based on ___; in contrast to the ___it was developed to be used ______; it is especially oriented to these groups.
MMPI; MMPI, w/normal population from age 13 and up; high school and college students
The CPI consists of ___scales, including ____used to_____. PO measures such ________; Like the MMPI, all scores are expressed as_____.
20 scales, including three validity scales, used to assess test taking attitudes; 462 true/false items; measures personality traits like dominance, sociability, self control and femininity; All scores are expressed as standard scores w/ a mean and SD derived from standardization samples.
Projective tests are different from personality inventories in two basic ways;
1) the simuli in a projective test are relatively ambiguous; 2) the test taker is not limited to a small number of possile response
In projective tests a test taker is given the stimuli and asked to ___; this means that the scoring of a projective test is ___,whereas the scoring of ____.
Interpret what he/she sees; subjective; scoring personality inventories is objective.
Rorschach inkblot test most famous projective test created by ____; test is made up of _____; cards are presented to the subject in a _____.
Hermann Rorschach; 10 cards that are reporductions of inkblots; in a specifc order w/very specific instructions to describe what it is the blots remind the subject of
The clinician then interprets the results based upon what the person ____.
Saw in the inkblots and tthe spontaneous remarks that the person may have made.
TAT; developed by___; consists of _____; test taker is told to ____; associated w/___.
Morgan and Murray; 20 simple pics depicting scenes that have ambiguous meanins; tell a story about what is happening, give the events prior to event and provide an ending; achievment.
Like the Rorschach ther is no_____.
Standardized scoring method for the TAT; scoring is qualitative and the clinician has to rely on his/her clinical skills.
Progjective test devised especially for children
Blacky pictures
Blacky pictures a projective test devised for children consists of__;
12 cartoonlike pictures that feature a little dog name Blacky.
The blacky picutres projective test was developed according to____, each pic depicts Blacky______; test taker is asked to tell_____.
Psychoanalytic theory; in a situation desighned to correspond to a praticular stage of psychosexual development; stories about the pics he/she is shown
Rotter incomplete sentences Blank; is an example of a_____, and is a _____that both ____use.Test taker is provided w/____; The theory is that the test taker will_____.
Sentence completion test; projective technique used by researchers and clinicians; 40 sentence stems and is asked to complet them; fill in the blanks w/whatever is on his/her mind.
Barnum effect
Referes to the tendency f people to accept and approve of the interpretation of their personality that you give them.
The barnum effect refers to the tendency of people to accept and approve of an inter of their own personality that another gives to them and it is relatively simple to_____; these____
Generate a report from stereotyped statements; reports are readily accepted as accurate.
The Barnum effect is a ____.
Form of pseudovalidation.
Personality tests; definition; type of test and examples; personality inventories such as.
MMPI, CPI, selfireating device consisting of statements that can be answered by the person taking the test; the test taker is gien a limited number of ways to respond to the statements; yes, no, uncertain
Personality tests; definition; type of test and examples; projective tests such as
Rorschach inkblot test, TAT, Rotter incomplete sentences, Blacky pictures; relatively ambiguous stimuli are presented to the test taker; the test taker is asked to interpret the stimuli
Interest testingis usually used to assess an individuals____
Interest in different lines or work.
The best known test of this kind is the
Strong Campbell Interest Inventory
The strong Cambell Interest Inventory used to assess an individual's interest in defferent lines of work is organized like a _____, and like the ___, was developed using an ____.
Personality inventory, MMPI, empirical criterion keying approach
On the strong campbell interest inventory, the test takers are given _____and asked to _____; in other sections of the test, the testaker is asked to indicate his or her _____.
Indicate whether they like or dislike the interest listed;indicate his/her preference for one of two paired items.
The interpretation of the results from the Strong Cambell interest inventory is based in part on _____
Holland's model of occupational themes.
Holland's model of occuptional themes, in part the basis for the interpretation of the results on the Strong Campbell interest inventory; In Holland's model he divided ___into ___; based on these divided interests Hollland's model is sometimes referred to as the ____.
Holland's model of occupational themes are divided into interests types. There are 6 interest types in Hollands modle; realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional; based on these 6 types of interest Hollands model is sometimes called the RIASEC system.
Imprtant formulas in stats; mean, median, mode, range, SD, variance, z-score.
M = sum of observations/numberof observations; Med = rank order, the number that divides data in half, if even # of data, then take the two middlemost #'s/2; Mode = number w/highest frequency; r = highest score minus lowest score; SD, square root of the variance; variance SD squared or the SDXSD; z-score, my score minus the mean/sd.
Important names in tests and measurements
Binet, A. and Simon, T.
Developed the Binet Simon intelligence test; Binet introduced the concept of mental age
Holland, J.
Developed the RIASEC model of occupational themes
Jensen, A.
Suggested that there were genetically based racial difference in IQ; this suggestion has been much criticized
Morgan, C. and Murray, H.
Develope the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT),, a projective test designed to measure personality
Rorschach, H.
Developed the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test designed to measure personality
Rotter, J.
Sentence completion test; a projective test designed to measure personality
Stern, W.
Developed the concept of the ration IQ
Strong, E. and Campbell, D.
Developed the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory; used to assess interest in different lines of work; they didn't work to devise this test together, Campbell revised an earlier test of Strong's
Terman, L.
Revised the Binet Simon intelligence test; revision became known as the Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Wechsler, D.
Developed several intelligence tests for use w/different ages; these test yield three deviation IQs, a verbal IQ, a performance IQ and a full scale IQ.
Psychological tests are assessments of
Behvior, attitudes, mental constructs, personality and mental health.
Intelligence and intelligence testing; Inteligence is a ___that ___; many psychologists have ____
Mental construct that cannot be specifically defined; different ideas about what intelligence actually is.
Intelligence is a mental construct that cannot be specifically defined; Intelligence is/is not__; __is related to intelligence via a____; It is unlikely that _____.
Is not IQ; IQ is the score one receives on an intelligence test; unlikely that IQ captures all facets of intelligence.
Alfred Binet developed both the ___ and the first ____.
Concept of IQ and the first intelligence test known as the Binet Scale
Binet developed an equation ____for ___; that is still the most commonly____
Mental Age/Chronicological Age times 100; IQ is still most commonly computed by Binet's equation.
According to Binet mental age is ____The highest chronological age used in Binet's computation ___; after this age ____; therefore, to use ______ would create this deflationary effect related to true IQ.
The aage level of a person's functioning according to the IQ test; high chrono is 16; IQ seems to stop developing after age 16; to use adult ages would deflate the IQ ratio
Why does the IQ ration deflate if adult ages are used?
B/c even if mental age stays constant w/o decline it cannot increase past the chrono age of 16; as such, chrono age continues to increase while mental age stops developing, this creates a deflationary effect on true adult IQ ratio.
The Mean IQ of Americans is ___, with a stadard deviation of ___depending on ____.
100, SD is 15 or 16 depending on the test.
Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales used with___and organized by ___;Compared w/ other intelligence tests, the Stanford-Binet is the ____
Children; organized by age level; out of all of the intelligence tests, the Stanford-Binet is the best known predictor of future academic acheivement.
Besides revising the Binet intelligence test into the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Lewis Terman of Stanford U is also known for ____and for the finding that____.
Terman is famous for his studes w/gifted children and for the finding that children w/higher IQs are better adjusted.
WAIS is the most commonly used intelligence test for___; organized by___that____and____.
Adults; organized by subsets, provide subscales and identify problem areas.
WISC-R, children aged ____; WPPSI, children aged ____.
6-16 and 4-6.
Goodenough Draw A Man Test for ____is notable for its___.
Children; relatively cross-cultural application and simple directions.
In the Goodenough Draw a man test; the test is notable for its cross cultural application and simple directions: Make a__; Make the ___; Children are scored based on___.
Make a picture of a man; make the very best pic that you can; scored based on detail and accuracy, not artistic talent.
IQ correlates most positively w/this and not that and also ___which is related directly to parents, not child.
IQ of biological parents; not adoptive parents and socioeconomic status of parents (SES), which is measured by either income or job type.
John Horn and Raymond Cattell founded two types of intelligence known as
Fluid and crystallized intelligence.
Horn and Cattell demonstrated that fluid intelligence, which is____, is/is not related to age; while crystallized intelligence, which is ____is/isnot related to age.
Fluid, knowing how to do something, declines w/old age, therefore fluid IS related to old age; whereas crystallized, which is knowing a fact, does not; thus crystallized IS NOT related to age effects;
Robert Zajonc studied intelligence in relation to siblings; specifically in relation to___;Zajonc found that ___were ___ and so on.
Birth and intelligence; firstborns were slightly more intelligent than secondborns and so on.
In his studies on the effect of birth order on intelligence, Zajonc found that first slightly more intelligent than second; Zajonc also found that the _______; the ensuing relationship seems to also be affected by the ____, with_____.
More children present in a family the less intelligent they were likely to be; relationship seems to also be affected by the spacing of the children, with greater spaces btw children leading to higher intelligence of siblings.
Charles Spearmen believe there was a _____, which he termed___; for example, someone that is good at logic and reasoning will probably score___on both the math and verbal sections of the SAT
General factor in human intelligence, g; score well on both matha and verbal.
g in Charles Spearmen general factor in human intelligence theory demostrates that a person that is good at logic and reasoning will score well on both the math/verbal sections of the SAT is___; related to, but the person may
Indicitive of g, the general factor theory of human intelligience; related to logic and reasoning and math/verbal outcome on SAT, person will score well, but may do better in one than the other
Academic tests, name 2 types.
Achievement and aptitude.
Contrast achievement tests w/aptitude tests; each measures a different type of performance/learning
Achievement tests measure how well I know a particular subject and measures past learning; aptitude is purported to measure my innate ability to learn, though regularly debated, and are intended to predict later performance.
In a nutshell, Acheivement is a test that measures__and aptitude is a test that ___
Acheivement, past learning; aptitude, innate ability to learn, and predict future performance.
Objective personality inventories; these do not allow subjects to ____, so these tests are ____
Make up their own anwer, relatively structured.
Structured tests are often seen as ____; most objective tests use this type of methodology___;
More objectively scored than projective tests; self-report, the subject records her own responses.
However, self report methods to assess personality are not completely objective b/c ______
Any self-report measure allows for the suject to bias her answers as in a response set or response tendancy.
Qsort or Q measure technique is the precess of ____; Each of these has ______.
Sorting cards into a normal distribution; each card has a different statement on it pertaining to personality.
Qsort or Qmeasure is the process of sorting cards into a normal distribution; subject places the cards that he is ____at the ____;
The process of sorting the cards into a normal distribution is the role of the subject; who places at the hump of the curve the cards that is felt neutrally related to the diff. statements on each cared pertaining to personality.
Further in Q sort the client places toward one end cards deemed ____of himself and toward the ____he places the _____.
Very characteristic of self; places the not characteristic cards
MMPI was originally created to determine ___, but is now used as a____; items such as, I would like to ride a horse were found to____that subjects_____.
Determine mental illnes; personality measure; arbitrary items like the horse, were found to discriminate btw different disorders and that the subjects could not second guess.
The MMPI has high ___primarily b/c it was constructed w/_____and b/c it has ____.
Validity; it was constructed w/highly discriminatory items; it has three validity scales.
MMPI Validity Scales how many___contain questions that assess these 3 areas.
3 validity scales, questions that assess lying, carelessness, and faking.
CPI is a personality measure generally used for ____and ____than the ____; developed by___.
More normal and less clinical groups then the MMPI; Harrison Gough at UC Berkeley.
Jungian typology test; which is a ___derived from Carl Jung's ____;
Myers Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI); personality test, personality theory
after responding to 93 questions, which each have 2 answers, a score is derived in the form of a_____whereby each _____represents_____; name eight characteristics.
4-letter "personality type" with each letter representing 1 of 2 possible opposing characteristics; Intro vs extr, sensing vs. intuition, feeling vs. thinking, and judgment vs. perception.
Julian Rotter created the
Internal-Extrenal Locus of Control Scale
The internal external locus of control scale by Julian Rotter is used to determine_____
Whether a person feels responsible for the theings that happen (internal) or that he has no control over the events in life (external).
Objective personality tests (5) name.
MMPI; CPI; MBTI; Internal/external locus of control scale; Qsort/Qmeasure.
Projective personalitiy tests (6), name.
Rorschach ink blot; TAT; Draw a person test; Totter incomplete sentence blank; word association test; rosenzweig piture frustration (P-F) study.
Projective tests allow the _____, thus faciitating the _____; The content of the response is interpreted by ____; some projective tests are scored ____.
Subject to create his own answer; expression of conflicts, needs, and impulses;the test administrator; more objectively than others.
Rorschach scoring is ___and validity is ___.
Complex; questionable.
TAT is made up of ___; picks show ____w/____; Subject tells a story about each of the cards, which reveals ____;
31 cards w/1 that is blank; various interpersonal scenes,two people facing each other;aspects of her personality.
TAT is often used to measure this concept; terms that go along w/interpreting the test are ___,___ and ____.
To measure need for achievement; needs, press, and personology terms as part of test interpretation.
Rosenzweig, identify the rest of the test name.
Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study
Rosenzweig picture frustration (P-F) study consists of _____in which___; subject is asked to _____.
Cartoons; one person is frustrating another person; describe how the frustrated person responds.
Word Association Test was origninally used in ____; a word is ___by a ____, and the _____
Conjunction with free association techniques; called out, psychologist, subject says the next word that comes to mind.
Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank is similar to ____; Subjects finish ____.
The word association test originally used in conjunction w/free association techniques; incomplete sentences.
Draw A Person Test asks the subject to ____.
Draw a person of each sex and to tell a story about them.
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is not used for this purpose, but rather for these reasons___
BDI is not used to diagnose depression; rather it is used to assess the severity of depressive sx and can be used by a researcher or clinician to track the course of depressive sx.
Summary of the BDI it is not used to diagnose depression, meaning that the depression inventory is not a diagnostic test; however, it is used for this__ and can be used in a clinical/research setting to___.
Assess sx severity; to track the course of depressive sx.
Empirical keying or also known by this term, to ____involves the _______. An individual's ____; name an example of this.
Criterion-keying approach to constructing assessment instruments, selection of items that can discriminate btw various groups; responses to the items determine if he is like a particular group or not; The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory.
Vocational tests assess to what extent an _____ and ____ match____.
Individual's interests, strengths, match those already found by professionals in a particular job field.
Lie detector test measure the ___of the ____, which _____.
Arousal, sympathetic nervous system, beomes stimulated by lying and anxiety.
Walter Mischel was extremely ___of ____and of ____in general. Mischel felt that ______.
Critical of personality trait-theory and of personality tests; situations, not traits, decisde actions.
Anne Anastasi researched the effects of this on ____.
Anne Anastasi researche intelligence in relation to performance.
F-scale or F-ration is a measurement of ____
Fascism or authoritarian personality.
Fascism or authoritarian personality are measured by___
F-scale or F-ratio
Bayley Scales of Infant Development are/are not ____;
Bayley scales are not intelligence tests.
The Bayley scales of infant development are not intelligence tests; they measure the ___and ____of ____in order to ____.
Sensory, motor development of infants, identify mentally retarded children.
Concering later intelligience, is their a relationship btw the Bayley scales of infant develop.
No, the Bayley scales are poor predictors of later intelligence.
Research design refers to how a researcher attempts to _____; Different ____call for ____, and some ____are more ____.
Examine a hypothesis; questions, different approaches; approaches, scientific than others.
A scientific approach to the study of psychology involves three necessary requirements/components.
1) A testable hypothesis; 2) A reproducible experiment that can be replicated by other sceintists in the field; 3) An operationalized definition that makes the concept under study observable and measureable.
A field study is an experiment that takes place in a ____; as a result, field studies generally have much ____compared to these type of experiments____For this reason the ______than it is__.
A naturalistic setting; musch less control over the environment than lab experiments do; the field generates more hyotheses than tield studies (experiments are able to prove.
Experimental design means that a study will ____, which is often___;
Takes place in a controlled setting, a lab.
The purpose of experimental design and the need for a controlled setting is that in order to ____the researcher bust be ______/
Draw causal conclusions from an experiment, able to control certain aspects of the environment.
The experimental or treatment condition and by____the experimental/treatment are the tools the reseacher uses to ____the ___; these are ____ applied to the ____.
Witholding it from the control condition; manipulate; IV;
Dependent variable the researcher does/does not____how the___the____/
Control the DV but rather examines how the IV affects the DV.
Confounding variable, researcher attempts to ___or ____; These are variables in the ___that might also _____and would ____of the_____.
Minimize, eliminate confounding variables;environment, affect the DV, blur the efect, IV on the DV.
Example of an experimental design; researcher is exploring the relationship btw eating and sleeping; Specifically the researcher hypothesizes that eating within an hour of going to bed causes a person to sleep unsoundly; The ____ will ____, but the ____ will____.
Experimental group, eat just before bed; control group, eat four hours before bed.
Along w/an experimental group who will eat immediately b4 bed and the control group who will eat four hours b4 bed, all subjects will ______; The IV is ____; the DV is ____.
Eat and sleep in the lab, which will control for the IV and differences in eating time btw the experimental and control group. IV is eating B4 bed; DV is quality of sleep.
Name a potential confounding variable____.
Is the possibility that simply sleeping in the lab could affect the sleep of some subjects.
Desing consideratons, researchers are generally interested in how an ____in a _____, which is a ___, such as _____.
An IV affects a DV in a population; a large group of people, such as women, college students, stockbrokers, or depressed pts
In a population it is ____, thus a _____.
It is usually impossible to include all members of a population in a study, a sample or subgroup is drawn from the population.
To make ____about a___from a ___, the ____of the ____and ___.
Inferences, population, sample, sample must be representative, pululation, unbiased.
Inferences made from a sample to a population, must have in the study a sample that is representative of the population and unbiased; How is the above parameters best acheived?
Through random sampling
Random sampling assumes that
every member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the sample.
At times random sampling may not be feasible so how can the parameters related to inference from a sample to population as representative and unbiased be acheived?
Through convenience sampling.
Convenience sampling give example___.
Freshman students at a university or students in an intro psych course;
When a convenience sample is used instead of random sampling, to make results more ____researchers may use___.
Generalizable; stratified sampling
Stratified sampling aims to ____of the _____; give example.
To match the demographic characteristics of the sample to the demographics of the populaton; sample that is 50% female, like the general pop.
Other considerations in research design; Longitudinal design this type of design is particularly usefule in tthis type of research
Developmental research when psychologists need to study people at different ages.
Longitudinal design involves studying the same ____and provides _____;
SAme objects at different points in the lifespan and provides better, more valid results than most other methods.
Name two drawbacks related to the use of longitudinal design.
Longtudinal designs are 1) costly and 2) require an enormous time commitment.
Cross-sectional design and cohort-sequential design.
Cross, in which different subjects of defferent ages are compared at the same time and only once; combines longitudinal and cross sectional approaches.
In cross sectional design in comparison to longitudinal design what are the benefits to implementing the cross design.
Faster and easier.
Within subject design tests the___at____and____.
Same person, multiple time points, looks at changes within that person.
Between subjects design compares _____.
Compares two groups of people at the same time point.
Example of study, if reserachers wanted to see if a new drug decreased depressive sx, the researcher could use ___
Either design; within subject or between subjects.
Related to the study of a new drug in the reductiion of depressive sx; in the within subjects design, the researchers would _____at ___then ____ and ____.
Measure the each participants depression at baseline; administer the drug; measure depression again
After the second measure of depression and the applicaton of the tx condition (depression drug), if the participants were ___the ___, researchers would ______.
Less depressed the second time depression was measured and after the tx, can conclude that the drug worked.
Key to the within subjects design
Every participant is treated to every condition; the control or comparison group is the participants themselves; baseline measure of depression and then measure of depression after application of drug tx.
Use of the btw subjects design in the depression drug study; researchers would give ____and ____and then ____.
One group of depressed people the drug tx and the other group of depressed people the placebo.
In the btw subjects design what types of groups help to ensure control of confounds; if the group that received the drug was ___than the group that received the placebo, then
Experimental is the tx; control group is the placebo, but neither group knows who is getting the actual drug tx; less depressed tx group than placebo; researchers would conclude that the drug was effective.
Quasi experimental design compares ____, however this design is used when it is not___or ____to use ____.
Compares two groups of people like an experiment, feasible or ethical, random assignment.
An example of researcher chosing to use quasi experimental design is in this not ethical situation; unethical to assign one group of people to ___; thus, studies that have shown that ____are ____.
Smoke for 20 yrs; smoking causes cancer, quasi-experimental.
In smoking study why are these quasi-experimental?
B/c subjects cannot be asked to smoke for 20 yrs, which is unethical, there was no random assignment to determine if people were smokers or not.
Placebo is used to form the ___and is a ____as___.
Control group; condition disguised as a tx substance or condition.
Predictive value
Is the degree to which an IV can predict a DV.
Generalizability
Is the degree to which the results from an experiment can be applied to the population and the real world.
Research problems name 11 of these potential experimental issues.
Acquiescence, cohort effects, demand characteristic, experimenter bias also known as the Rosenthal effect, hawthorn effect, nonequivalent control group, placebo effect, reactance, selective attrition, social desirability, illusory correlation.
Acquiescence
When people agree w/opposing statements.
Cohort effects
The effects that might result when a group is born and reaised in a particular time period.
Demand characteristic
When subjects act in ways they think the experimenter wants or expects.
Rosenthal effect also known as ___; and how is this effect minimized in the ____research design.
Experimental bias, when researchers see what they want to see; this bias is minimized in a double-blind experimental design.
Hawthorne effect; this was first observed in a ____ and is an applicable effect in research.
When subjects alter their behavior b/c they are being observed; factory setting where workers were found to alter behavior based on being observed.
Nonequivalent control group
This problematic type of control group is used when an equivalent one cannot be isolated.
So in the event that an equivalent control group cannot be isolated, then ___may be put in place, though it is ____.
Nonequivalent control group, which is a problematic type of control group.
Placebo effect
Subjects behave differently b/c they think that they have received the tx substance or condition.
Reactance, ex.,
An attitude change in response to feeling that options are limited; ex., when subjects react neg. to being in an experiment by intentionally behaving unnaturally or when an individual becomes se on a certain flavor of ice cream as soon as he is told it is soldout
Selective attrition; before selective attrition took place the group was equivalent through___; once _____affected the group, the group is no longer considered___.
When the subjects that drop out of an experiment are different from those that remain; random assignment; selective attrition took place, the remainign sample is no longer random; b/c those that left did so based on different reasons than remaining sampl
Social desirability is when subjects do and say
What they think puts them in a fav light (reporting they are not racist even if they really are).
Illusory correlation; ex.,many insist a relation exists btw physical/person characteristics, what does the evidence suggest
When a relation is inferred when there actually is none; despite evidence that no such relationship exist.
Meta analysis is ____that ________the_____for a particular___.
Method of study that mathematically combines and summarizes the overall effects or research findings for a particular topic.
Meta analysis is best known for ____of the ____, metaanalysis can calculate ____or ____from a ___.
Consolidating varous studies, effectiveness of psychotherapy, one overall effect size, conclusion drawn, collection of different studies.
When is the meta analysis method needed____.
When conflicting results are found and when different studies use different methods.
All studies in psychology are ___by an___, which makes sure that the ____and do not ____.
Approved, Institutional Review Board (IRB) as the ethical concerns are important in research and ethical standards in psych research are high.
B4 participation in a study, all subjects must be provided w/_____and then sign____.
Information about the risks and benefits of being in the study, sign a consent form indicating that they are award of the risks involved.
Milgram experiment was a catalyst for-____; why was the Milgram experiment unethical.
Higher ethical standards in psychological research; deemed unethical b/c of the lasting psy distress experienced by the participants.
Statistics is the process of
Representing or analyzing numerical data.
Descriptive statistics organize__
Organize data from a sample by showing it in a meaningful way.
Unlike w/inferential stats, descriptive stats_____
Don't allow conclusions to be drawn beyond the sample; cannot generalize to the population or infer from a sample to population w/descriptive stats.
The five most common forms of descriptive statistics are____
Percentiles; Frequency distributions; Graphs; measures of central tendency; variability
Descriptive, percentiles are used most commonly on ____; if I receive a percentile ranking of 97%, this demonstrates my position ____
Standardized tests; inthe wole group by saying that I scored higher than 97% of the group.
Frequency distributions explain how the ___; The distributions might show how often ____; what are the common types of variables?
Data in a study looked; How often different variables appeared; nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio also known as levels of measurement.
Nominal comes from the latin word for ____so these varibles are given____no order amongst variables except to ____.
Name; descriptive names; separate them into groups.
Ordinal implies___nothing else can be known about these variables b/c they are not ___; only that they need to be ___.
Order; equally paced; arranged by order that is it.
Interval varibles are capable of showing both____; temp has an ____.
Order and spacing b/c equal spaces lie btw the values; temp has an arbitrary zero as there is no point that signifies the absence of temp.
Ratio variables; these have all three components of measurement; real zero is exampled in ___, why?
Order, equal intervals, and a real zero; age, after an absolute zero of not being born, age increases in euqal intervals of years.
Graphs are used in descriptive stats to ___; name the three types of graphs
Plot data; frequency polygon, histogram, bar graph.
Frequency polygon, this graph has ____often used to plot variables that are ____.
Plotted points connected by lines; continuous.
In a frequency polygon which has potted points connected by lines to plot variables that are continuous, variables that are continuous refers to___
Categories w/out clear boundaries.
Histogram, this graph consists of ___in which the ___.
Vertical bars, sides of the vertical bars touch.
Histograms are useful for these type of variables___, which have ____and also for ____.
Discrete variables, clear boundaries; interval variables in which there is some order.
Why is order related to inteval variables, why is some order necessary in order to display in a histograpm?
B/c the bars are lined up in order.
Bar graph is like a histogram ecept that the ____; the various vertical columns are ___.
Vertical bars do not touch;separated by spaces.
Measures of central tendency indicate where on a ____.
Number line the data set falls in general.
Mean or average are highly affected by___; the Standard error of the mean calculates how _____.
Mean is highly affected by extreme scores; SEM calculates how "off" the mean might be in either direction.
Variability provides additional info to ____; tells me how the _____.
Central tendency; scores are spread out overall.
Range is the most basic measure of variability; the overall range is also known as the ___.
Spread.
Variance and SD, tells me how much ____there is among ___.
Variation; n number of scores in a distribution.
To calculate variance, figure out how much ____; Then need to ___ to get rid of neg values that result when the scores fall below the mean; now _____which gives me the ____.
Each score differs or deviates from the mean by subtracting the mean from each score; Square each deviation value; add all of the squared deviations to get the SS
After the SS is obtained to get the variance of the sample, SS/n, remember that all of these values were ___, so to find the ___. take the ___of the _____.
Squared; average deviation from the mean or SD; square root, variance.
SD tells me the _____to which ____; If the average SD is large, then ____; if the SD is small then ___.
Extent to which scores were different from the mean; large = scores are highly dispersed; small = scores were very close together.
Different standard _____make it difficult to _____on ____.
Distributions;compare scores, two different tests.
Normal distribution, the larger my sample, the greater chance of having a
Normal distribution of values.
Normal distributions are ____with the _____in this range; fewer scores ____; All measures of central tendency fall at the ___and all have an SD of____.
Unimodal; the majority of scores falling w/in the middle range or 68%; are at the extremes; fall at the 50.00; SD of zero.
Z scores refer to___
How many SD a given score is from the mean.
T scores are ____, formula for calculating T___.
Transformation of a z-score; T = 10(Z) + 50.
To combat problems of _____and ____with ____, normal distributions can be ___;
Comparing scores and distributions of scores w/different SD; standardized
A standardized normal distribution used for the comparing of scores and distribution of scores that have w/the same SD are known as
Standard normal distributions, which is the same thing as a normal distribution.
Thour a standard normal distribution is the same thing as a normal distri; the standard normal distri has been___so that the ______and the _____.
Standardized so that the mean for every such distribution is ) and the SD is 1.
Standard normal distributions and ___allow me to ______on____.
Z scores; compare one persons scores on two different distributons.
Example of how the Standard normal distribution and z scores allow for the comparison of scores on two different distributions; if a person's intellect matches hi/her achievment on the Gre, we would expect t____on an ___and on the ____.
Expect someone to receive the same zscore on an IQ test and on the GRE ie a z score of +2
The standard normal distribution allows for a score received on an IQ test and GRE to be the same in the form of a___, even though both tests____
Zscore of +2; even though both tests use different scoring systems.
If IQ and GRE are correlated than that is why I would expect the person to receive the _____
Z score on both measures.
If we saw tht a person's IQ score was 130 or a z of +2 and their GRE score was a 570, right at the mean; I would hypothesize that _____
For some reason this individual was not performing to his/her potential.
Cumalative percentile distribution for each standard z score; standard z scores are on the ____; while frequency is on the ____.
Horizontal axis = standard z; Vertical axis = frequency; +3 = 99.74% cumalative % rank; +2 = 97.72%; +1 = 84.13%; 0 = 50.00%; - 1 = 15.87%; -2 = 2.28%; - 3 = .26% which is the cumulatvie percentil distribution and the cum % rank.
Know all the numbers on the standard normal distribution and how they map ont a normal distribution; ex, john scores an 88 where the mean is 80 and SD is 4; if this normal distribution of scores were standardized to have a mean of 0 and a SD of 1, then Johns score ___.
John lies +2 standard deviations above the mean; if converted to a standardized distribution his score of 88 would be meaningless
Why would John's score of 88 become meaningless in a standardized distribution
B/c it would be comparing apples and oranges; raw scores are not utilized on a standarized normal distribution.
Since John's raw score of 88 would provide us w/no info; then what can we do with his raw score to determine his percentile ranking in the distribution?
Transform a raw score into a z score; we know that he has a z of +2, which would tell me that John lies in the 97th percentile.
In order to memorize the percentage under the standard normal distribution associated w/standard z scores use this nmeumonic
34:14:2, which applies to both sides of the mean.
A negatively skewed distribution hump is to the__while the tail is to the ___; a positively skewed distribution the hump and tail are in which directons
Neg; hump is right and tail is left; pos; hump is left and tail is right.
In a neg skewed distribution; describe the relative position of the measures of central tendency
Neg; hump is right, mean is closest to tail, median is near the top of the hump; mode is at the center of the hump, the hump indicates the most frequent score = mode.
Positive skew; platykuric; bimodal describe the relative position of the measures of central tendency
Pos. hump is to the left so position of central tendency is opposite neg skew; mean is closest to tail to the right, median is near the top of the hump and mode is at the center of the hump.
Platykuric; bimodal describe the relative position of the measures of central tendency
Platykuric, mean, median and mode are all in the same position, centered on this flat distribution, which is the same for normal curve.
Bimodal describe the relative position of the measures of central tendency
Bimodal the mean and median are in the same position, centered, which is the same position these two measures can be found on the normal and platykuric distributions; though concerning the mode, bi means there are two modes, each at polarized ends of the distribution.
Correlational statistice are neither purely _____; correlation can only show ___not causality btw variables.
Neither purly descriptive nor purely inferential; can only show relationships that exist btw variables.
Types of correlations
Positive; negative; curvilinear; zero correlaton.
Positive and neg correlations are examples of
Simple linear correlations..
Curvilinear relationship is not ___; it looks like a___
Not simple and linear; looks like a curved line.
Pearson r correlation coefficient is a way of____; A value of -1 indicates a _____; a value of + 1 indicates a _____; the strenth of the relationship is indicated by___
Numerically calculating and expressing correlation; -1 indicates a perfect neg. correlation; while +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation; how far away the correlation coefficient is away from zero (weaker) and how close it is to -1 or +1 (stronger).
A Spearman r correlation coefficient is another correlation used only when the data is in the form of ___; it is the procedure for _____.
Ranks; determining the line that describes a linear relationship.
Regression is
The step beyond simple correlations.
A statistical regression allows for me to go beyond ___to make____.
The identification of a relationship btw two variables; to make predictions about one variable based on another variable.
Inferential stats the generalization of findings from a sample to a po. which is the larger group from which the ___
Larger group from which the sample was drawn.
Statistics refers to___and parameters ____.
Numbers that describe a sample; refer to numbers that describe populations.
When a researcher uses a stats test and the ___are significant; this means that the ____rather than just, this ____give sample ex.
Sample stats are significant; numbers that describe the sample are describing real differences or pattern vs. random variation. ie, men are taller on average than women or that tx groups in therapy trials perform better than control groups;
Null states that
No real differences or patterns exist.
Statistical significance demonstrates that the results
Were not likely causeed by chance; reject the null.
Can researchers be certain that their findings are correct? How can a researcher be reasonably sure.
Cannot know for certain; but certain standards are accepted.
Standards of acceptance to reasonably ensure that findings are correct make use of the alpha level set at ____,
An alpha level of <.05 or <.01;
An alpha level set at the standards of the field, means that the chance that seemingly significant errors are
Due to random variaton rather than to true, systematic variance is less tha 5/100 or less than 1/100.
True systematic variance is the effect of the
IV on the DV.
Type I and Type II errors
Type 1 occurs when I reject the null, however I falsley rejected it and the signficant findings were caused by change; Type II, I accepted the null when in fact I should have rejected b/c my findings are significant.
Which tests of significance I use depends on the and of my___
Characteristics of my sample and the caracteristics of my DV.
T-tests compare___to determine if two groups are ____; if the groups truly are different then this would mean that the _______rather than___.
T, compare means of two different groups; exhibit true differences, which is demonstrated with a means that is large enough to be considered statistically significant, due to chance variation.
Continuous data; discreet data
Continuous is anything that is measured such as ht or depression score on a depression scale; discrete data include things that are counted such as group size, number of hospital visits, number of sx.
Discreet data are particularly useful w/____(data that is not measureable and refers to things that are counted)
Samples that have small "n" meaning few subjects.
T-tests analyze____on ____; T-tests cannot test for differences___
Differences btw means on continuous data (anything that is measured); btw more than two groups.
Chi square tests are used when the ____are classified into___otherwise known as ___.
n-cases in a sample are, categories or cells
Results of the chi-square test tell me whether the
Groups are significantly different in size.
The results of a chi-square test which show that groups are significantly different in size relates to the chi-square's purpose, which is to___
Chi-squares look at patterns or distributions.
The difference in the significance testing of a Chi-square test compared to other significance tests is that .
The patterns or distributions detected in Chi-square do not test for differences btw means as do the other statistical significance tests.
Why does the Chi square not test for differences btw the means?
B/c data obtained are at the nominal or ordinal level; thus there is not a normal distrubution nor are there measures of central tendency.
Example of how the Chi-squares look at patters or distributons; imagine that 100 members of an intro to psych class are _____
Catagorized based on race; caucasian, african amerian, asian, hispanic, native american.
An insignificant result of a chi square test of the race categorical data would show that
No one race tended to be enrolled in Intro to Psych significantly more than any other race.
Chi-square tests analyze ____ and can be used on ____.
Categorical or descrete data; data that has been counted rather than measured and so usually is limited to positive and whole values; small samples.
Chi-square tests can also assess this cliched term or whether the___.
The goodness of fit of distributions, the pattern is what would be expected.
Categorical or discrete data is data that has been counted rather than measured; this type of data is usually limited to
Positive and whole values (no fractions or negative numbers)
ANOVA is similar to ___in this way____; but it is more ____b/c it can_____.
T-test as they both analyze the differences among means of continuous variables; flexible than the t-test, analyze difference among more than two groups.
With an ANOVA the ability of this test to analyze the difference of means among more than two groups can/cannot occur w/varying group sample sizes.
Can take place, differences in group sizes do not affect the statistical application of ANOVA to determine mean difference btw groups.
One way ANOVA, tests whether the means on one outcome or DV are____
Significantly different across groups.
The difference between a one way ANOVA and t test is only that the ___
One way ANOVA can test for mean differences btw more than 2 groups.
Two-way ANOVA can test the effects of___
Two IVs or treatment conditions at the same time
Two way ANOVA is a more powerful test than the one way ANOVA b/c the one way can only test for_____while the two way can test for____
One way, btw group mean differences; two way, can also test btw group mean differences but in addition can test the effects of two IVs.
Factor analysis of variance is used when an experiment involves more than one __; This analysis can ____.
One IV; seperate the effects of different levels of different variables.
FA can seperate the ____
Effecs of different levels of different varibles.
Ex of FA and the seperation of effects of diff levels of diff variables; If I was studying the effect of brain lesions on prblem solving, I could have two IV___and one DV.
The two IV are lesion and type of problem and the DV is success w/problems
Give each IV two levels______
The two levels of the IV would include IV lesions, w/wo lesions; IV type of problem, simple/complex tasks
Two IVs each having two levels is this type of a factor design___which would yield ______.
2X2 design, which yields four different combinations for evaluation.
A factor analysis can ____the ___which are the ____
Isolate, main effects; effect of lesions on problem solving and the effect of type of task on problem solving.
More importantly a factor analysis can identify ____; which combines the _____; ex.
Interaction effects; combine IVs; do people w/leasions do better on simple tasks than people w/o lesions do on complex tasks.
ANCOVA, Analysis of Covariance tests whether ____; and importantly, can adjust for___
At least two groups co-vary; the ANCOVA can adjust for preexisting differences btw groups.
Linear regression allows me to use ____in order____.
Correlation coefficients in order to predict one variable y from another variable x.
The predictor variable in linear regression is ___and the outcome variable is __
Predict from y to determine outcome of x.
Correlations measure the ____, but they do not ____; ex., let's say that a correlation btw extraversion and number of friends is .73; with this info what is possible?
Linear relationship btw two varibles, describe the relationship; the relationship btw extra and friends is not descriptive and only demonstrates that a relationship btw the 2 does exist, but the direction is unknown; thus, cannot predict from an extraversion score how many friends someone would probably have.
Linear regression allows us to define a _____that DESCRIBES the realtionship btw ___; In general the same datat I used to ____is now____.
Line on a graph that DESCRIBES the relationship btw x and y; used to calculate a correlation, plotted on a graph.
Extraversion score is the x and number of friends on the y axis; dots on the graph are ____
The dots on the graft are the data from the individual subjects.
Lineaer regression is when the ______is ___.
Least-quares line or regression line is fit to the data.
The least squares line or regression line would be situation so that the _____and the line is ____.
Distance btw each point of data and the line is as small as possible.
Finding the point where each point of data and the line and the distance between is as small as possible is found by finding __
Line of best fit; regression line is determine by finding the difference btw each data point and the line, squaring these difference to get rid of negative numbers and then summing all the difference values.
Summing up linear regression; regressions use _____to ____based on a _______.
Correlational data, to make predictions based on a line fit w/the least squares method.
Commonly used tests of significance for inferential statistics.(6).
T-tests; chi-square; ANOVA; Factorial analysis of variance; Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), Linear regression.
Distinguish btw the Goodenough draw a man test and the Draw a person test contrast measures outline
Goodenough draw a man test is an intelligence measure used w/children, it has cross cultural application and is based on simple directions; the draw a person test is a projective personality test which aska a subject to draw a person of each sex and tell a story about them.
Creating measures; tests are standardized
or tried out on huge groups of people in order to create norms.
Criterion-reinforced tests
measure mastery in a particular area or subject, criteria is tested; for example, the final exam of a course.
Domain referenced tests attemp to measure; these types of tests need to be checked for ____
Less defined properties like intelligence or other constructs devised to make objective and allow for the testing of a mental or internal process; need to be checked for reliability and validity.
Reliability means how___
Stable the measure is.
Types of reliability measures are test retest reliability; when correlations btw subjects same form tests taken at different times if the correlation is high then
The person would get approximately the same score each time.
Split half reliability is measured by _____; method of doing so.
By comparing an individual's performance on two halves of the same test (odd vs. even questons for example).
Split half reliability reveals the ____of a test; another way to increase internal consitency of a test is to perform an ____
Internal consistency; item analysis.
An item analysis as a method of increasing the internal consistency of a test, is the ____; this process weeds out ____so they can be ____; questions that replace the prblematic questions have ___, which increases ____.
Analysis of a large group responses to each item on the measure; problematic questions, so that they can be replaced w/ better questions, questions that have discriminatory value; which increase internal consistency.
Validity means
How well the test measures a construct.
Types a validity
Concurrent, construct (covergent; divergent), content, face.
Concurrent validity and cross validation
Is whether scores on a new measure positively correlate w/other measures known to test the same construct; the concurrent validity process is cross validation.
Construct validity is whether the test
Really taps the abstract concept being measured.
Content validity is whether the
Content of the test covers a good sample of the construct being measured not just part of it.
Back to construct validity it is comprised of two additional subcomponents of validation
Convergent and divergent
Convergent validity is the idea that a construct overlaps or has a relationship in part to other___; if the known overlap btw constructs is ____then the test has ____
Constructs, such as self-efficacy, postive life outlook; is highly correlated btw measures then the test is shown to be a valid measure of positive life outlook (measure of the abstract, with the construct adequately being tapped into via the test)
Divergent validity the second component of construct validity which is correlated with measures that ___ for instance, positive life outlook and a history test.
do not purport to measure the construct being tested
Face validity is whether the test items
simply look like they measure the construct.
Donald Campbell and Danald Fiske created the ___
Campbell and Fiske created the multitrait-multimethod technique to determine the validity of tests.
Validity means how well the test measures a given construct and is also broken down into two types of validity
Internal and external validity
Internal validity measures the extent to which the
Different items within a measure ang together and test the same thing (does the test measure what was intended to measure).
External validity is the extent to which a test meassures
What it intends to measure.
External validity encompasses 4 aspects.
Concurret, construct, content and face.