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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 types of developmental research
developmental and cross sectional
relationship between the 2 developmental research types and age..
longitudinal underestimates age changes
cross sectional overestimates age changes
multiple baseline design solves for.. but affected by..
ethical issue of having to remove treatment but may have carryover effects
reversal design (ABA) problematic when..
can't/shouldn't remove treatment
4 descriptive stats scales are..
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
describe 2 skewed distributions..
+ is a hard test, mean > median > mode
- is a easy test, mode > median > mean
% tile rank has what type of distribution
rectangular so any given range of scores have same # of people
4 types of decisions in inferential stats
true null, type I error, power, & type II error
parametric test used for and it's assumptions are
interval/ratio data
homogeneity of variance & normal distribution
non-parametric test used for and it's assumptions are
nominal or frequency data
assumptions of parametric not met
in what 2 ways is factorial ANOVA different from one way ANOVA
factorial has more than 1 independent and gives info. re: main effect & interactions
MANOVA has
at least 2 dependent variables
what's a clue that a study involves non-parametric tests?
involves counting & no means are involved
2 research variables
independent- manipulated by experimenter
dependent- outcome variable
pygmalion effect also called
rosenthal effect
best way to control internal validity threat
random assignment
how is random assignment different from random selection
assignment refers to placing into groups once selected selection refers to randomly picking from the population
demand characteristics are..
cues in research that might lead to research effects
8 threats to interval validity
history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, stat regression, selection, mortality, experimenter bias
interval validity refers to
experimenter control
external validity refers to
generalizability of study results
best way to control external validity is
random selection
qualitative studies lack but are useful for
internal & external validity but identify future studies
standard deviation curve:z scores for 84%tile, 16%tile, 98%tile, 2%tile
z= +1, z= -1, z= +2, z= -2
68% of scores are where on the z distribution? 95% of scores are where on the z distribution?
between -1z & +1z and between -2z & +2z
sampling error is
difference between parameter and statistic
significant ANOVA means
population means are different
name the non-parametric test equivalents for independent t test, correlated t test, one way ANOVA
mann whitney u, wilcoxon matched pairs, kruskal-wallis
what is the mann whiteny u test?
rank ordered data
what is the chi square test?
nominal/frequency data
sampling distribution compared to the population distribution
is less variable