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45 Cards in this Set

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Measurement Scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
4 NOIR
Nominal
labeling different objects
ex. gender
Ordinal
ordered ranked data- mean is questionable
ex. 1st, 2nd, 3rd place
Interval
equal units- use mode, median and mean
Ratio
Has a true zero or starting point- use mode, median and mean and ratio
Types of Measures
Global Rating
Self-report scales
Projective technology
Direct Observation of behavior
Psycho-physiological measure
Multi-methods
GSPDPM
global rating
quantification of an impression on a general characteristic
ex. scale of 1-10
Strengths of Global Rating
everyone can use
allow summary of broad characteristics
Weaknesses of Global Rating
vague-dont know what went into rating
unable to detect small changes
increased risk of instrumentation effect (since no clear criteria rating may drift)
Self-report scales
quantification of a # of specific areas by individual
ex. survey, interview
Strengths of self-report scales
easy to use
only the individual has access to thoughts and feelings
Weaknesses to self-report scales
individual biases- diff perspective on ourselves
social desirability-change answers to make themselves look better
Projective Technology
record responses to ambiguous stimuli
linked to psychodynamic theory
ex. ink blot test
strengths to projective tech.
since answers aren't obvious, its harder for someone to make up answers
weaknesses to projective tech
difficult to score
interpretation subject to error and bias
Direct observation of behavior
watching something or someone
strengths of direct observation
can be done in a real environment (external validity)
easily customized for individual needs
weaknesses of direct observation
Hawthorne effect- observation can change ppl's behavior
Psycho-physiological measure
look at biological aspects
ex. heart rate and sweat
strengths of psycho-physio.
can measure changes not consciously recognized
hard for subjects to manipulate
weaknesses of psycho-physio.
how do you know that relationships b/w psycho and phsyio.
expensive- lie detector
Multi-methods
combo of all
strengths of multi-methods
most psychological constructs are multifacited
can inform you about generalizability
give you an idea of how method effects results
weaknesses of multi-methods
inconsistency with results are hard to explain
2 different ways to select a measure
1. use what has been used before
2. look at the psychometric characteristics of the measurement
Strengths of using what has been used before
easy comparison of results with previous studies
results from others can interpret yours
weaknesses of using what has been used before
previous studies picked a bad measure than so did you
how do you know what size effect to expect?
previous studies
do a pilot study
temp. as measured in Kelvin
ratio
temp as measured in Faherenheit
interval
gender coded as "male" and "female"
nominal
gender coded as 1s and 2s (1= male, 2= female)
nominal
anger as measured by a scale of 1 to 7 with 1=not angry at all and 7= completely irrate
ordinal
intelligence as measured by an IQ test (0-300 with 100 being average)
interval
age measured in number of years and months
ratio
performance in a race by order of finishing (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
ordinal
height as measured by "shorter than av", "average", and "taller than av"
ordinal (ranking)
depression as measured by number of depressive symptoms endorsed on a 20-question self-report survey
ordinal
clinical diagnosis as defined by DSM
nominal
skill at kickball as measured by the order in which picked for the team
ordinal
time in history as measured by georgian calender
interval
religion coded as 0=none, 1=christian, 2= jewish, 3=other
nominal
knowledge of mathematics as measured by number of questions answered correctly on a math test
ordinal
test performance as measured by number of questions answered correctly on a math test
interval
speed of a car as measured in miles per hour
ratio cuz it starts at 0