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43 Cards in this Set

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Research
is what scientists do as they practice science; process of asking and answering questions
empiricism
philosophical position that statements must be supported by experimental or observational evidence
determinism
means that events do not happen randomly or haphazardly; caused by other events, describe events/phenomena, understand and explain, predict events, control
inductive method
an experiment first and explain later approach; first observe events, experiment with them and later arrive at a conclusion regarding nature and causation of events
deductive method
is an explain first and verify later approach; explains event and then attempts to verify the explanation through the results of experiments
theory
systematic body of information concerning a phenomenon, describe an event, explain why the event occurs and how the theory can be verified
hypothesis
concerned with a more specific prediction stemming from a theory; proposed answer to a specific question and formulated prior to an investigation
null hypotheses
means zero and states that two variables are not related
alternative hypotheses
states that two variables are indeed related, one may be the cause of the other
Data
results of systematic observation, and in many cases, experimentation; observe events and record some measured values of the events
Qualitative data
are verbal descriptions of attributes of events; involve words
Quantitative data
are numerical descriptions of attributes of events; involve numbers
What two criteria does scientific data meet?
validity and reliability;
reliability
refers to consistency with which the same even is measured repeatedly; scores are reliable if they are consistent across repeated testing or measurement
validity
the degree to which an instrument measures what it purports to measure;
Types of validity
predictive (criterion validity)
Concurrent validity
Construct validity
Content validity
predictive (criterion validity)
predictive (criterion validity)- test predicts future performance on a related task
Concurrent validity
form of criterion-related, degree in which a new test correlates with an established test of known validity
Construct validity
degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs or concepts
Content Validity
measure of test validity based on a systematic examination of all test items to determine if they adequately sample the full range of the skill being tested and relevant to measure
correlational coefficient
number or index that indicates the relationship between two or more independent measures
r value
value of 0.00 indicates no relationship btw. two measures; highest possible positive r is 1.00 and lowest negative of r is -1.00: closer to 1.00 the greater the reliability of test or measurement
test-retest reliability
consistency of measures when the same test is administered to the sample twice, test scores are positively correlated
alternate-form reliability(parallel form reliability)
based on consistency of measures when two parallel forms of the same test are administered to the same people
split-half reliability
measure of internal consistency of test; showing that the responses to items on the first half of the test are correlated with the second half responses
interobserver or interjudge reliability
2 or more observers agree in measuring an event; results coefficient of .90 or more
intraobserver or intrajudge reliability
the same observer repeatedly measures the same event consistently
interobserver or interjudge reliability
2 or more observers agree in measuring an event; results coefficient of .90 or more
intraobserver or intrajudge reliability
the same observer repeatedly measures the same event consistently
experiment
is a means of establishing cause-effect relationships, and test if-then relationships
independent variable
directly manipulated by the experimenter that causes changes in the dependent variable (treatments are indep)
dependent variable or effect
variable that is affected by manipulation of independent variable(disorder or particular skill is depend)
single subject designs (SSDs)
play an increasing role in establishing efficacy of treatment procedures, help establish cause-effect relations based on individual performances under different conditions of an experiment
multigroup pretest-postest design
evaluate the relative effects of two or more treatments
ABA and ABAB designs
basic single subject experiment design and extension of the basic design; both are to establish treatment efficacy. first A condition refers to baseline, next B condition refers to treatment, third A condition refers to treatment withdrawal, and final B condition is reinstatement of treatment
ex post facto (retrospective) research
after the fact research, the investigator begins with the effect of the indpendent variables that have
occured in the past, the investigator is making a retrospective search for causes of events.
survey
assess some characteristics of a group of people or a particular society; how variables such as attitudes, opinions, or certain social practices are distributed in a population
comparative research
measure the similarities and differences of groups of people with defined characteristics
developmental (normative) research
measure changes in subjects over time as they mature or get older
longitudinal research
participants are studied over time
cross-sectional method
select participants from various age levels and observe the behaviors or characteristics of the groups formed on the basis of age
correlational research
researcher investigates relationships or associations btw. variables, do not imply causation and use words such as relationships or related
ethnographic research
is observation and description of naturally occurring phenomena
it is not an experimental type of research.