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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is parturition
why is the scrotum important
it is important for thermal regulation because sperm sythesis requires below body temperatures
What are the two roles of the testes
spermatogenesis and secretion of androgens into the blood stream
what is the site of spermatogenesis
the seminiferous tubule
where are the leydig cells and what are they responsible for
they are in the testicular interstitium and are responsible for androgen synthesis
Diagram the flow of sperm
seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, 2 inguinal canals(pelvic cavity), joinin the vas depherens near bladder at 1 ejaculatory duct urethra
What are the seminal vesicles
they are glands at the posterior surface of the bladder that secrete 60% of the semen into the ejaculatory duct
what three glands produce semen and are know as accesory glands
prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands
what type of secretion is from the seminal vesicles
fructose and sperm function products
what secretions come from the prostate gland
alakali to neutralize the acidity of the vagina/urethra 35% of semen
what do the bulbourethral glands secrete
alkali and lubricant
what is an erection and how is it caused
erectile tissue composed of veins/capillaries and surrounded by connective tissue cause accumulation of blood at high pressure
What are the two compartments that contain erectile tissue
corpus cavernosum/spongiosum
What are the three stages of the male sexual act and how are they controlled
arousal, orgasm, resolution. controlled by the intergrating center in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex. arousal at night or anxiety.
What is arousal and what is it dependant on
erection and lubrication, dialation of arteries supplying the penis causing swelling and veinus obstruction. secretoin by the bulbourethral glands. Point-parasympathetic
what is orgasm and what is it caused by
emmision and ejaculation, Emmision=propulsion of sperm and semen into the urethra by smooth muscle contraction. Ejaculation is the reflex reaction caused by the presence of semen in the urethra caused by the sympathetic nervous system
What is resolution and what is it caused by
return to normal state caused by the constriction of erectile arteries, resulting in decreased blood flow. 2-3 minutes and is controlled by the sympathetic state
What process in humans use meiosis
what takes place in meiosis
diploid germ cells become haploid gametes. Recombination and different alleic combinations cause genetic diversity
What are the mature male/female gametes called
spermatozoa or ova/eggs/ovum
What is the process of fusion called
syngamy or fertilization and result in a zygote
describe the difference between haploid and diploid cells
haploid means 1 set of chromosomes and diploid is two
What is ment by maternal inheritance
everything but the haploid genes in a zygote are from the female including mitochondria
When and where does spermatogenesis happen
in seminiferous tubules at onset of puberty
what are sertoli cells
cells in the wall of seminiferous tubule that aid in spermatogenesis
What are germ cells
cells that give rise to spermatogonia germinate to produce organism
Diagram the names of the steps in spermatogenesis
spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, spermatozoa
mitotically reproduce, in s phase of meiosis(gonna become a sperm) 2n
Primary spermatocyte
Undergo meiosis 1. 2n
Secondary spermatocyte
meiosis 2 2n cells to n
turn into spermatozoa, its a kid spermatozoa almost mature is N
Finish maturing in seminigerous tubulue and in epididymis
How long can sperm remain in the vas deferens and why
they are inhibited by substances in the vas deferens and have low metabolic rate so they live for 30 days
How do spermatogonia divide
by mitosis
how many sperm result from one spermatogonia
do sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes recombine
homologous chromosomes sister chromatids are identical
What is the acrosome
the compartment in the head of the sperm developed in the seminiferous tubules that contain hydrolytic enzymes for penetration of the ovums protective layers.
When do sperm develop flagella
in the spermatid stage
What hormones are involved in spermatogenesis
Testosterone, LH, FSH, Inhibin
What is the role of testosterone in spermatogenesis
stimulates the division of spermatogonia inhibits hypothalamic release of GnRf and release pituitary gland secretions
What does lutenizing hormone do
it stimulates leydig cells to secrete testosterone secreted from anterior pituitary
What does follicle stimulating hormone do
stimulates sertoli cells, promote and maintain spermatogenesis anterior pituitary
What does inhibin do
It is secreted by sertoli cells and inhibits fsh in the anterior pituitary negative feedback
what controls the release of fsh and lh
GnRH, from the hypothalamus via the hypothalamic portal system
What makes male of females
xx female, xy male
what are wolffian ducts
undifferentiated gonads that develop into male reproductive system, epididymis, seminal vesicles and vas deferns)
What are mullerian ducts
cells that develop into into female genetalia
What happens in the absence of Y chromosome
female genetalia take prescedence
What does the y chromosome do
has info for the development of testes and produces testosterone and mullerian inhibiting factor
What does MIF do
causes regression of the mullerian ducts
What does the systemic testosterone produced by the leydig cells do
it is converted to dihydrotestosterone in cells and leads to the development of male genetalia in taget cells
Does the embronic testosterone effect the testicle development
What would happen if someone was born without testosterone receptors
testes would be present, external genetalia would be female, and because of mif neither internal genetalia would be produced
What are the male secondary characteristics
facial hair, voice deepening, increased muscle mass, takes place durring puberty where testosterone becomes high again also fusion of epiphyses
What could a leydig tumor do in a young boy
cause an early onset of puberty do to high levels of testosterone
What will high levels of testosterone in early childhood do to a boys height
it will cause fast growth but shorter as an adult
What is of higher concentration in the blood testosterone or dihydrosterone
What cells establish the blood testis barrier
sertoli cells
Why are the female and male genetalia analogous
developed from undifferentiated cell precurors
What is produced by xx instead of testes
ovaries which secrete estrogens
What takes place without testosterone in the labioscrotal swellings
labia majora forms
What is the analogous structure to the penis in females
the clitoris in the labia majora in the uppermost part of the vulva
What is just below the clitorus
the urethral opening which urine exits from
What is the labia minora
the skin folds surrounding the urethral opening
What else is in the labia minora
the vaginal opening
What are the vagina, fallopian tubes and uterus derrived from
mullerian cells so there is no homolog male counterpart
Diagram the internal female anatomy
vaginal tube, cervix or neck, uterus with innermost lining called endometrium which is responsible for nourishing embryo shed every month, myometrium(smooth muscle), two fallopian tubes, fimbriae(finger like strucutes), ovary.
Is estrogen needed for the development of female internal anatomy
no as long as mif isnt there they will develop
what differs in male/female sexual act
clitoris,labia minora erect. Bartholin glands secrete lubrication. Orgasm includes cervix widening. no ejaculation. Resolution takes longer
What takes place in the ovary of an embryo
germ cells divide mitotically into large numbers of oogonia, doesnt take place till puberty in males
What happens after 1 month after female infancy
primary oocyte formation stops
When does the production of primary oocytes stop in females
a few months after a female is born
What happens before and durring the onset of puberty
the number of oocytes remains constant untill puberty, then at puberty that number decreases. untill menopause-cells live for that long
what is a polar body
the cell that gets half the dna and almost no cytoplasm one in each mitotic division
What is the result of oogenesis from a single oogonia
1 gamete instead of 4
At what pt in meiosis are primary oocytes frozen in
prophase 1 of meiosis 1.
How many oocytes are stimulated durring menstration
several, survival of the fittest determines which one lives and becomes a secondary oocyte
What happens to the secondary oocyte
it emerges from the ovary and enters the fallopian tube and is ovulated.
is the secondary oocyte haploid
yes sir
When does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis 2
after it has been fertilized and egg extrudes second polar body
Is the primary oocyte a singel cell
no it is in a group of cells known as follicles which an oocyte surrounded by granulosa like sertoli cells cells which assist maturation
What is the difference between primordial follicles and primary follicles
single layer of granulosa, poliferation of granulosa into severaly layers of mucosa/polysacharides called the zona pellucida
What are thecal cells and what are there analogs
they are cells in the ovarian interstitium between follicles and are like leydig cells and respond to LH as well
What is the Graafian Follicle
the only follicle that reaches maturation each month
What happens durring ovulation
the mature follicle bursts and releases the secondary oocyte with the zona pellucida and granulosa cells into the fallopian tube
granulosa cells known as the corona radiata
Where is estrogen made
it is made and secreted by the granulosa cells with the help of the thecal cells in the first half of the menstral cycle. (both estrogen and projesterone in second half)
Wat happens durring the menstral cycle with the estrogen and projesterone
estrogen made in follicle and both made in corpus luteum(small body of follicle cells left behind in ovary). after ovulation. these hormones are responsible for the menstural cycle
What takes place durring the proliferative phase of the menstral cycle
Estrogen produced by follicle induces proferation of the endometrium
When does the secretory phase of menstration occur and what does in entail
afer ovulation estrogen and progesterone are produced by the corpus lutem further increase the development of the endometrium including secrtetions of glycogen lipids and other material.
What happens in the menstrual phase
If pregnancy does not occur secretion of estrogen and progesterone decrease and endometrial lining sloughs out. takes place 28 day cycle
What happens in the ovary durring the menstrual cycle
menstration is taking place: follucular phase begins and follicle secretes estrogen. Estrogen stimulates primary oocyte to go through mieosis1 and proliferative effects in endometrium. In ovular phase secondary oocyte is released from ovary
At what phase does ovulation occur
in the proliferative phase
Where is the secondary oocyte in the secretory phase
in the fallopian tube
What is the luteal phase
the analog of secretory phase in which estrogen and progesterone are secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation to start secretory phase
What would happen if estrogen or progesterone was given to a female
menstration occurs due to drop in corpus luteum estrogens so menstration would not occur without it.
What is the role of Lh in females
Secreted by antior pituitary and it is usually inhibited by estrogen, but gradually increasing estrogen of follicular phase stimulates burst of LH that causes ovulation. It induces follicle to become corpus luteum. and secretion of est, prog
What would happen if Lh levels remained high
It would impair regression of corpus luteum est, prog would remain high. endometrium would not fall.
What would happen if estrogen remained high
ovulation would not occur
What does FSH do
allows for the development of the follicle
Why does the endometrium shed
fall in estrogen
Why does corpus luteum degenerate
due to fall in lh which is due to the feedback inhibition of high levels of estrogen and progesterone
How is ovulation prevented in pregnancy
high levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit Lh surge
What happens to the corpus luteum durring pregnancy
it fails to degenerate in response to low levels of lh
What happens durring fertilization
the embryo is implanted into the endometrium and the placenta develops.
What is the chorion
the portion of the placenta that is derrived from the zygote which secrets a hormone that takes the place of lh and maintains corpus letuem called chorionic gonadotropin
at what day does ovulation usually occur
day 14
What happens durring menopause
no follicle estrogen or progesterone so FSH and LH are very high
How long will a egg remain fertile
for 1 day
What is capacitation
the dillution of semen inhibitory substances near the cervix
How long do sperm survive
3 days
What must happen before fertilization can occur
sperm must penetrate the corona radiata and bind and penetrate the vitelline layer(zona pellucida)
What is the acrosome reaction
process in which the large vescle in the sperm head releases hydrolytic enzymes by exocytosis
What is the acrosomal process
after corona radiata has been penetrate actin(microfillimants) elongate tword the vitelline layer. Bindin(species specific) binds vitelline. membranes fuse and sperm enters secondary oocyte(20mins -meiosis 2 complete)
What happens after mieosis 2
ootid/polar body form. ootid matures rapidly and becomes ovum zygote forms
What is polyspermy and how is it stopped
penertation by more than one sperm. Prevented by fast block which occurs upon penetration of egg by spermatozoan. Depolarization occurs by ca+2 influx
What is the slow block
cortical reaction where swelling of space between vitelline and pm and the hardening of vitelline layer occur due to ca. Ca also changes ph and causes metabolism/protein synthesis to increase.called egg activation
What is cleavage
the first stage of embryogenesis where cell produces morula which is same size as zygote skip g1-2 and stay in S and M phase
What is the blastocyte
blastulation produces outer cells mass that surround an inner cell mass where the inner cell mass adheres to one side of the cavity outer is trophoblast which creates chorion inner is embryo
What would happen if two inner cell masses formed
twins would be born
When does implantation occur and what is it
1 week after fertilization, blastocyst implants itself into the endometrium. Tropoblast sectets proteases and allows for blastocyte to sink in and absorb nutrients
What is the placenta
it is the organ that allows nutrients, gasses and antibodies across the maternal/embryonic blood stream takes 3 months to occur. HcG is very important here
What happens if the corpus luteum is removed durring pregnancy
menstration would occur due to loss of estrogens
Why is the corpus luteum not needed durring the last six months of pregnancy
placenta secretes progest, est to maintain endometrium
What are the structures derrived from the inner cell mass
amnion(surrounds a fluid filled cavity where embryo rests) amniotic water is here

yolk sac(red blood cell synthesis in embryo)
Allantois: embryonic gut and forms blood vessles of umbilical cord.
What is gastrulation
Three germ layers become distinct
What is the archenteron
primitive gut
What is the blastopore
the whole whish will be the anus
What gives rise to the gastrula in humans
the embryonic disk
Nervous system
Posterior pituitary, adrenal medula
Cornea, lens
Epidermis of skin and hair, nails, sweat glands, sensory receptors
nasal oral and anal epithelium
Muscle, bone, connective tissue
vascular/lymphaic system including blood
Uroenital organs(kidney, ureters, gonads, reproductive ducts)
Gi tract epithelium(except mouth and anus)
Gi glands(liver, pancrease, gallbladder)
Respitory epithelium
Epithelial lining urogenital organs and ducts
Anterior pituitary
What is neurulation
formation of the nervous system, pinching of layer of ectoderm
when does the embryo become a fetus
by week eight
What tissue forms the placenta
What is a totipotent cell
a cell that can become any type of cell
What is a determined cell
a celll wit ha fixed fate it proceeds differentiation
What is differentiation
visible differences in cells
What cells have unique genomes
B cells and T cells and gametes due to reductive division without independant assortment and recombination
What is parturition
What causes contraction
lowering of progesterone, oxytocin, mechanical stretching
Describe the contractions
occur weakly throughout pregnancy, labor contractions are positive feedback reflex. Greater pressure on cervix-causes increase in contraction intensity which causes greater pressure
What hormones are released in response to cervical stretching
posterior pituitary releases oxitocin
What stimulates formation of breasts
estrogen. Placenta estrogen and prog cause enlargement of breasts. prolacin/oxitocin involved
What does prolactin do
it is secreted from anterior pituitary from hypothalamic regulation and causes production of milk
what does oxitocin do
causes contractions from post pituitary and also milk let down.