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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Function of Gonads
1) Produce Sex Cells(gametes
A) Oocyte (female)
B) Sperm
2) Produce Sex Hormones
A) Estrogen
B) Testosterone
C) Progesterone
Function of Sex Hormones
Affect maturation, development, and activity of reproductive system
Gross Anatomy of the Female
1) Ovaries
2) Uterine tubes
3) Uterus
4) Vagina
5) Vulva
6) Mammary glands
1) Primary sex organs
2) Smooth in young girls
3) Scarred and pitted after puberty
4) Tunica albuginea
5) Ovarian Cortex
6) Ovarian Medulla
Ovarian Cortex
Houses Ovarian Follicles- one oocyte surrounded by follicle cells.
Follicle cells
support cells of the oocyte
Ovarian Medulla
1) Loose connective tissue
2) Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
Uterine Tubes
1) Fallopian tubes or Oviducts
2) Fimbrae
3) Walls Consist of:
A) Mucosa B) Muscularis B) Serosa
4) Ciliated Simple Columnar
Oocyte Propulsion
1) Cilia of the Uterine tubes
2) Peristaltic contractions in the muscularis of Uterine tubes
Gross Anatomy of Uterus
1) Fundus
2) Isthmus
3) Body
4) Cervix
Functions of the Uterus
1) Site of implantation
2) Support, Protect, and Nourish fertilized egg
Tissue Layers of the Uterus
1) Perimetrium- serosa
2) Myometrium- muscularis ( 3 layers of smooth muscle
3) Endometrium- mucosa (stratum functionalis and stratum basalis)
Stratum Basalis(or Basal Layer)
permanent layer of endometrium that undergoes little change during each uterine cycle.
Stratum Functionalis (or Functional Layer)
Superficial layer of endometrium that grows from the basal layer and is site of implantation. Shed as menses if implantation doesnt occur
Cervical Cancer
1) Approximately 4,000 deaths each year
2) Risk Factor: Human Papillomavirus(HPV)
3) Pap smear: test to detect cervical cancer
4) Treatment
A) Cone biopsy
B) Hysterectomy
C) Development of HPV vaccine?(still non existent)
1)Thin-walled fibromuscular tube inferior to uterus
2) Birth canal
3) Receives penis during intercourse
4) Passageway for menstruation
5) Highly distensible wall
Wall of Vagina
1) Mucosa
2) Muscularis
3) Adventitia
External Genitalia (Vulva)
1) Mons Pubis
2) Clitoris
3) Urethral Opening
4) Labia Majora
5) Labia Minora
6) Vestibule
1) Maturation of a primary oocyte to a secondary oocyte
2) Begins in femals fetus
3) Ovary and oocyte remain inactive untill puberty
Ovarian Cycle
1) Follicular phase
2) Ovulation
3) Luteal Phase
Follicular Phase
1) FSH and LH stimulate maturation of follicle
1) Expulsion of oocyte from ovary
2) LH surge
Luteal Phase
1) Remaining follicular cells turn into corpus luteum
2) Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone
Uterine (Menstrual Cycle)
1) Menstrual Phase
2) Proliferative Phase
3) Secretory Phase
Menstrual Phase
functional layer sloughed
Proliferative Phase
Development of functional layer
Secretory Phase
Progesterone secretion increases vascularization and development of uterine glands
1) Normally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55
2) Cessation of ovulation and menstruation
3) Circulation levels of estrogen and progesterone decline
4) Reduction of uterus and breasts
5) Bone mass declines (osteoprosis)
Gross Anatomy of the Male
1) Testes
2) Epididymis
3) Ductus Deferens
4) Ejaculatory duct
5) Seminal vessicles
6) Prostate gland
7) Bulbourethral gland
Anatomy of the Testes
1) Produce sperm and androgens
2) Covered by tunica vaginalis and albuginea
3) Each lobule contains seminiferous tubules where sperm production occurs
4) Interstitial spaces surround the seminiferous tubules and contain interstial cells
A) produce androgens
1) Begins at Puberty
2) Controlled by FSH and Testosterone
Stages of Spermatogenesis
1) Spermatogonia (stem cells) that are surrounded by cytoplasm of sustentacular cells divide by meiosis creating a new germ cell and primary spermatocyte
2) The primary spermatocyte undergos meisois I producing two secondary spermatocytes
3) Secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis II forming spermatids
4) Spermiogenesis occurs and the spermatids differetiate to form spermatozoa(develop tail)
What is the ideal temperature for sperm production?
3 degrees cooler than the body temperature
Spermatic Cord
3 Layers
1) Internal Spermatic fascia
2) Cremaster muscle
3) External Spermatic fascia
Testicular artery is surrounded by pampiniform plexus- provides thermoregulation for pre-cooling arterial blood
1) Skin covered sac holds the testes
2) Provides cooler temperature needed for normal sperm development and maturation
3) Homologous to the labia majora in females
4) Raphe- ridgelike seem
5) Dartos Muscle- lifts the scrotum
6) Cremaster- lifts the testes
1) Contains a long, convoluted duct of the epididymis (4-5 m)
2) Sperm must reside in the epididymis for a period of time to become mature and fully motile
3) If sperm are expelled too soon, lack motility
4) If sperm are not ejected in a timely manner, the old sperm degenerate in the epididymis
Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)
1) 3 layers: mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
2) Mucosa- pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
3) Muscularis contracts to move sperm through the ductus deferens
Ejaculatory Duct
Carries sperm from ductus deferens to the urethra
1) Transports semen from ejaculatory ducts to outside of the body
2) Divided into:
A) Prostatic urethra
B) Membranous urethra
C) Penile urethra
Accessory Glands
1) Seminal Vesicles
2) Prostrate Gland
3) Bulbourethral Glands
Alkaline Seminal Fluid
1) Necessary to neutralize the acidity of the vagina
2) Nourishes sperum during their trip
Seminal Vesicles
1) Fructose- nourish sperm
2) Prostaglandins- widen and dialate cervix
Prostrate Glands
1) Citric acid: nutrient
2) Seminalplasmin: combat UTI in males
3) PSA: liquefy semen after ejaculation
Bulbourethral Glands
Mucus: protect urethra, lubricant for sexual intercourse
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia
1) Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate
2) Very common- 90% of men over 80
Prostate Cancer
1) Risk increases with age
2) Detected by digital rectal exam or PSA test
1) Root, shaft, and body
2) 3 erectile bodies
A) Corpus spongiosum
B) Corpus cavernosa (2)
1) skin covering glans
2) removed during circumcision
Sexual Differentiation
1) No difference before 5th week
2) Testis-determining factor on Y-chromosome
3) TDF (SRY) gene causes proteins to stimulate production of male hormones
4) Absence of TDF gene produces female
1) Mesonephric duct forms male duct system
2) Paramesonephric duct forms female system
Failure to close urogenital folds in males. Results in urethral opening on underside of penis
1) Individual with both male and female sex characteristics
True Hermaphrodite
Have both ovarian and testicular structures and ambiguous (or female) external genitalia
Genetic sex does not match phenotypic sex