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67 Cards in this Set

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Functional things in the female reproductive system:
1) ovaries
2) uterine tubes
3) Uterus
4) Vagina
5) Mammary Glands
Ovaries (short description):
-produce secondary oocytes (eggs) in fetal development, then they are just stored.
-they also produce hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
Uterine Tubes (short description):
transports egg to uterus (site of fertilization)
Uterus (short description):
-site of implantation to Uterin wall, then the egg is called ovum for 2 weeks
what is the ovum also called?
blastocyst
When is the ovum no longer called the ovum?
after 2 weeks, after 14 days, it is considered a fetus for 2 wweks to 40 weeks.
Vagina (short description):
recieves penis during sexual intercourse
-also passageway for childbirth
Mammary Glands (short description):
synthenize, secrete, and eject milk
Primary genitalia:
ovaries
Secondary genitalia:
Uterine Tubes (aka fallopian tubes/ova ducts), uterus, vagina, vulva
Size/shape of ovaries:
-3cm long
-almond shaped
Ovaries are _____ to testes in men:
homologous
Suspendatory ligaments:
the ovaries are suspended by these ligaments, it attaches them to the lateral pelvic wall
mesovarium:
double peritoneum, superior to ovaries and helps to keep them in place
Ovarian Ligament:
inferior portion of ovary, attaches ovary to outer uterine wall.
Hilum of ovary:
where BV, nerves enter/exit the ovaries
Ovarian artery:
one in each ovary; branch off of uterine artery.
External coat of ovary:
Tunica Albuginea, a fibrous capsule with cubodial epithelial cells
Inetnal Ovary has two parts:
1) Ovarian Cortex
2) Ovarian Medulla
Ovarian Cortex:
just deep to Tunica Albuginea, this holds the eggs, made of dense irregular tissue
Ovarian Medulla"
deep to cortex, has BV, nerves, lymphatic tissue, made of loose connective tissue
size/location of Uterine tubes:
-extend laterally from the uterus
-about 10cm/4in. long
-passageway for egg
parts of the uterine tubes:
infundibulum, fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus, mesosalping
Infindibulum:
tunnel shaped portion of the tubes
Ampulla:
widest portion of the tube, most tubular pregnancies happen here, fetus dies, and mothers tube can rupture.
Isthmus:
long, narrow portion that connects to Uterus
Mesosalping
viseral peritoneum
Uterus:
-the womb, part of the pathway of sperm to uterine tubes, site for implantation, development of fetus, and labor
Wher is the uterus located?
between the UB and rectum
3 parts to the uterus:
1) Fundus: superior dome portion
2) Body: central portion
3) Cervix: narrow portion, leads to vagina
List the layers of the uterus:
Perimetrium, Myometrium, Endometrium
Perimetrium (layer of the uterus):
outermost portion, viseral peritoneum, simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue
Myometrium (layer of the uterus)
has three layers of muscle in it
-has smooth muscle that is thickest at fundus and thinnest at cervix, has circular (contract around) and longitdinal (shortens) muscles
-this is the layer that responds to OXYTOCIN (hormone that works by posoitve feedback) occurs during labor
Endometrium (layer of the uterus):
inner layer, highly vascularized, has 3 components:
1) simple columnar muscosa
2) areolar tissue
3) uterine glands
where do the uterine arteries branch from?
the internal iliac
the arcuriate artieries supply the ... ?
myometrium
the radial artieries supply the ... ?
endometrium
name and describe the two types of radial arteries:
-straight radial arteries supply the basal layers
-spiral radial arteries supply the functional layer
Vagina (anatomy):
-tube thats about 10cm long
-from uterus to outside
Functions of the vagina;
-recieves penis during sexual intercourse
-passageway for mentral fluid
-birth canal
Hymen:
this is a covering that covers the external opening of the vagina, it protects from bacteria from getting inside, its thickest as an infant
Vulva:
external genitalia, it has MONS PUBIS which is a fat pad, adipose tissue, it cushions the pubic symptoms
Labia Majora:
folds of skin covered in pubic hair made of adipose tissue. Sebacious and sudiferous glands are here (oil & sweat)
-homologous to scrotum in males
Prudendal Cleft
opening between labia majora and vestibule
Vestibule
emptying of urethra and opening of vagina,
Labia minora:
made of adipose tissue, it meets anteriorly to for prepubice of clitoris
Clitoris:
2cm long, anterior portion of vestibule, homologus to glans penis in the male
Mammary glands:
-external accessory sexual organ; purpose is for milk production and housed within the breasts.
-estrogen and progesterone begin the development of breasts in girls; mammary glands expand
-perform the act of lactation (producing milk)
-prolactin is released from posterior pituitary
Menstral Cycle:
-day 1 is the first day of the girl's period. the functional layer of the uterus is shedding, this last 4 to 7 days.
-then you have regeneration of the lining for the rest of the cycle.
3 phases of the menstral cycle:
1) Follicular phase
2) Ovulation phase
3) Luteal Phase
Follicular phase
-follicle develops in the ovary.
-follicle stimulating hormone released by anterior pituitary, travels to the ovaries to mature the follicle, this occurs as a woman is menstrating
Ovulation Phase:
-happens anywhere from 12 to 16 (usually 14) days after 1st day of period, this is when the ovary releases mature follicle.
-release of Lutenizing hormone, that causes ovary to release mature egg.
***much easier to get pregnant here
Luteal Phase:
implantation will occur, if sperm and egg have met, hormone levels increase (Human Chronic Gonadotropin HCG), and she may experience spotting
-if theres no fertilization, she will shed egg and functional layer
how does birth control work?
birth control releases progesterone, tricking the body into thinking it's pregnant so she doesnt release an egg
name and describe the male reproductive system:
1) testes produce sperm and male sex hormone testosterone.
2) ducts transport, store, assist in maturation of sperm
3) the accessory sex gland secrete most of the liquid portion of semen
4) penis contains urethra, ejaculation of sperm, excretion of urine.
Testes:
-primary genitalia, they are paired
-suspended in the scrotum
-sperm cannot be made in body temperature, that's why they are external, about 2 degrees cooler
Serous Membrane:
Tunica vaginalis ~ peritoneum
-250-300 lobes: contain semineferous tubules 1-4 (the more of these he has, the more fertile he is) made of epithelium, areolar tissue, they make sperm cells.
Penis:
-external genitalia
-sperm delivery organ
3 regions of the penis:
-root: attached to body
-body: free moving portion
-glans penis: the tip, where the nerve endings are, the forthra is the part that is removed if he's circumsised.
Urethra of a man:
excretes both urine and sperm, but it cannot do that at the same time
Erectile bodies:
tubes of blood sinuses (3 tubes), affected by BP and nitric oxide
Epididymis:
comma-shaped structure, posterior & lateral to testicle, it is highly coiled (it would be 6m long if it wasn't)
-this gives the sperm time to mature
-made of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium and smooth muscle
Vas Deferens:
short tube about 45cm long, made of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, has a thicker layer of smooth muscle and has advendita (dense irregular tissue)
What do the accessory glands do?
help to make liquid portion of the semen
Seminal Vesicle:
ejaculatory duct, delivers sperm into urethra
Prostate:
25% of seman made here, liquid portion
-becomes enlarged when sexual arrousal occurs
-alkaline fluid in sperm, vagina is acidic, the alkaline fluid protects the sperm from the acidity in urine and acidic female genital tract.
Spermatogenesis:
how a man makes sperm