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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Follicular growth is under control of___________
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), an anterior pituitary gonadotropin
ovulation is stimulated by _______
a surge in LH secretion
describe the steps in the ovulatory process allowing for ovum release
-LH and PGs decrease follicular blood flow and stimulate release of granulosa cell plasminogen activator
-LH and progesterone stimulate collagenase production
-collagenase and plasmin break down the follicular wall for ovum release
after ovulation, collapsed follicle is transformed into___________and granulosa and theca interna cells become_________
1. a corpus luteum
2. luteal cells
if conception does not occur, the corpus luteum remains functional for about ____________and then degenerates
14 days
what is the most potent and plentiful ovarian estrogen in the nonpregnant female of reproductive age?
estradiol
granulosa cells have receptors for_______
FSH
FSH stimulates conversion of androgens to estrogen via__________
aromatization rxns
__________ is produced in all ovarian cells and is the precursor for all androgens and estrogens
progesterone
androgen synthesis takes place in the __________under the influence of___________
1. theca internal cells of the preovulatory follicle
2.LH @ LH receptors
what are the necessary roles of granulosa and theca interna cells in estrogen production?
1. theca interna cells produce androgens(precursors for estrogens)
2. conversion(aromatization) of androgen to estrogen takes place in granulosa cells
describe the synthesis and transport of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)
-synthesized in two clusters of hypothalmic neurons
-axonally transported to median eminence for storage in granules
-secreted into hypothalmic-hypophyseal portal Sx through pituitary portal in pulses
What are the anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
LH and FSH
Describe the function of GnRH
-binds to membrane rec in gonadotropic cells in anterior pituitary
-this triggers influx of calcium
-calcium binds to calmodulin
-complex acts as 2nd messenger to stimulate release of LH and FSH
what are the effects of prolonged GnRH receptor stimulation?
-down-regulation/desensitization of the gonadotropic cell to GnRH and inhibition of gonadotropin (LH/FSH) secretion
functions of LH involving the corpus luteum
1. conversion of follicle to corpus luteum
2. maintains corpus luteum
3. stimulates estrogen and progestin secretion from corpus luteum
Large, mid-cycle surge of LH is responsible for?
stimulus of ovulation
LH acts on granulosa cells late in follicular phase to__________
stimulate the production of estrogen from androgens
_________acts on the ovarian follicle to simulate follicular growth and maturation
FSH
FSH acts on the granulosa cells of the follicle to __________
stimulate aromatization of the thecal androgens to estrogens
_______is considered to be the primary trigger for LH surge causing ovulation
estradiol
____________exert negative feedback effects to inhibit both LH and FSH synthesis and secretion at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels
high levels of estradiol and progesterone in the luteal phase
after ovariectomy, both__________levels rise
LH and FSH
actions of estrogens (estradiol) during puberty
ANABOLIC:
-stimulates growth and development of the female reproductive organs and
secondary sex characteristics
-stimulates bone growth and epiphyseal closure
actions of estrogens(estradiol) on uterine motility
-stimulates uterine endometrial proliferation and increases spontaneous myometrial electrical activity
antiandrogenic effects of estrogen(estradiol)
decreases the viscosity of sebaceaous gland secretion and the tendency for acne formation
metabolic effects of estrogens (estradiol)
-increased sodium and water retention
-increased synthesis of clotting factors(increased risk of thromboembolism)
-minimal effects on insulin action
progesterone effects on reproductive organs
-conversion of proliferating endometrium into secretory endometrium suitable for implantation
-increases myometrial transmembrane potential to stabalize membrane and decrease uterine motility
_____________increase temp by approximately 0.5 degrees F by increasing the hypothalamic set point after ovulation
progesterone
___________has a natriuretic effect by competitive inhibition of aldosterone
progesterone
Previous decriptions of mentrual 28 day cycles called _________day zero, andthis method is still used to describe the ovarian cycle
day of ovulation
In terms of uterine cycle and current hormaonal contraceptive practice, day 1 is____________
the first day of menses with ovulation occuring at mid-cycle on day 14
the menstrual and proliferative phases of the uterine cycle coincide with the________ of the ovarian cycle
follicular phase
the secretory phase of the uterine cycle coincides with the ___________of the ovarian cycle
luteal phase
follicular phase of the ovarian cycle begins 12 days prior to ovulation , with ______________ occuring on day -1
serum estrogen levels reach their highest
ovulatory phase begins on day zero of the ovarian cycle--describe the post-estrogen peak effects that occur during this phase
-surge in LH secretion stimulates ovulation within 24 hrs; highest LH levels during cycle
___________accompanies the LH surge during the follicular phase
a small FSH surge
descibe the events taking place during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle
-LH transforms thecal and granulosa cells into luteal cells of the corpus luteum
-high estrogen and progesterone levels, in response to high LH levels, inhibit LH and FSH secretion
what occurs to stimulate the onset of menstruation?
-as corpus luteum decreases productin of progesterone and estrogen, the hormonal support of the uterine endometrium decreases and menstruation occurs
_____________________ removes the inhibition of FSH secretion allowing for FSH to then stimulate development of a new set of follicles for the next cycle
decline in steroid production during the luteal phase
describe the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle and the days encompassed
-estrogen stimulates endometrial proliferatin: layer thickens, glandular and vessel enlargement
-days 3.5 to day 14
secretory phase of the uterine cycle
-days 14-28
-after ovulation on day 14. progesterone stimulates conversion of proliferative endometrium into secretory endometrium
-without conception corpus luteum regresses and the decrease in estrogen and proesterone levels results in loss of hormonal support for secretory endometrium
menstrual phase of the uterine cycle
-days 1-3.5
-protaglandins are released, endometrial arteries constrict, uterine ischemia occurs, followed by endometrial necrosis
describe the characteristics of the cervical mucus at the end of the proliferative phase
-high volume, ferning, high elasticity, stringy mucus