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31 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common intersex in vet med & what are 3 causes?
male pseudohermaphrodite: has testes but phenotypically resembles a female

inherited male psuedohermaphroditism: goats, pigs, dogs (XX)
androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization): cattle, horses (XY)
persistent Mullerian duct syndrome): Miniature Schnauzers (XY or XXY; testes attached to uterine horns)
testicular hypoplasia

a. prevalence
b. results
a. relatively uncommon
b. small flabby testicles bilaterally; fail to get females pregnant; spermatogenesis is ↓ or absent but androgen production usually unaffected --> male 2º sex characteristics are manifest
cryptorchidism

a. characteristics of retained testicle
b. what is "proud cut"?
a. hypoplastic b/c of ↑ intra-abdominal temperature --> no spermatogenesis
predisposed to neoplasia (Sertoli cell tumors), & torsion
interstitial cells continue to function & produce testosterone --> horse that still behaves & grows like a stallion
b. horses that were castrated but continue to act like stallions (only descended testicle was removed)
testicular degeneration & atrophy

a. prevalence
b. results
c. causes
a. more common than hypoplasia: most frequent cause of infertility in males
b. small (atrophic), fibrotic testicle, firm b/c of condensed stroma +/- mineralization, epididymis doesn’t atrophy & appears disproportionately large (ddx: epididymitis)
c. thermal influences, systemic dz w/ pyrexia, etc. (often undetermined)
What is a sperm granuloma?
any condition which results in release of sperm into interstitium --> foreign body rxn to sperm (large # of MPs & giant cells)
infectious orchitis

a. species most commonly affected
b. etiolgies in bulls
c. most common cause in horses
a. ram, dog
b. Brucella abortus, Mycobacteria, C. pyogenes, Staph
c. migration of Strongyle larvae
seminoma

a. species most affected
b. biologic behavior
c. gross appearance
a. dog
b. 10-20% met (most malignant of testicular tumors)
c. white, soft, may have areas of hemorrhage & necrosis
Sertoli cell tumor

a. species most affected
b. biologic behavior
c. gross appearance
d. sequelae
a. dog
b. 10-15% met
c. white, firm (large amounts of fibrous CT w/in tumor)
d. produce hormones --> hyperestrogenism --> pancytopenia, attractiveness to other dogs, ↓ libido, atrophy of unaffected testicle, endocrine alopecia, petechiae, gynecomastia, squamous metaplasia of prostate (predisposes to prostatitis)
interstitial cell (Leydig) tumor

a. species most affected
b. biologic behavior
c. gross appearance
a. dog, bull
b. benign
c. yellow, soft, hemorrhages, cavitation
epididymitis

a. etiologies: ram
b. etiologies: dog
a. Brucella ovis: breeding age rams (older); primarily venereal transmission
gram neg. rods (Histophilus, Actinobacillus, Hemophilus): yearling rams
b. E. coli & other coliforms that ascend from urinary system, Brucella sp. via hematogenous dissemination
funiculitis

a. what is it
b. usual cause
a. inflammation of spermatic cord
b. castration (provides source of infection which ascends spermatic cord)
“scirrhous cord”: common name for funiculitis in gelding, characterized by exuberant granulation tissue enclosing multiple small abscesses & many fistulae (usually caused by Staph)
prostatitis

a. predisposing factor
b. usual route of infection
a. prostatic hyperplasia
b. ascending from lower urogenital tract
What is balanoposthitis?
inflammation of penis & prepuce
SCC of penis

a. species affected
b. biologic behavior
a. horse most common, then dog
b. locally invasive w/o distant mets
parovarian cysts

a. species affected
b. clinical significance
a. normal in horse (~100%), common in dogs & cats
b. only significant if they involve ovulation fossa & interfere w/ ovulation
cystic endometrial hyperplasia

a. species affected
b. caused by...
c. assoc. w/ what hormone
d. predisposes to...
a. dogs (common) & cats
b. irritation
b. progesterone
c. pyometra
endometrial hyperplasia

a. cause in cattle
b. cause in ewes
c. cause in pigs
a. cystic Graafian follicle --> ↑ estrogen --> endometrial hyperplasia
b. ingestion of estrogenic plants (esp. clover)
c. estrogenic mycotoxins from Fusarium sp. fungi
subinvolution of placental sites

a. species affected
b. characterized by...
c. predisposes to...
a. dogs
b. normally these sites involute about 4 weeks postpartum
in this condition, they persist as ellipsoidal enlargements
lochia (normal postpartum blood mucus discharge) usually present for 1-2 weeks
if persists for 3-4 weeks, may have subinvolution
c. metritis
In most species, pyometra is assoc. w/ a _________ cervix & ___________ corpus luteum.
closed; persistent
What is the role of progesterone in perpetuating pyometra?
phagocytosis & killing of bacteria depressed in presence of progesterone & enhanced by estrogens
cycling often resolves infections & ↑ estrogen stimulation --> ↓ likelihood of infection
progesterone also causes closure of cervix, which protect uterus from new ascending infections, but also retains present infection, blocking drainage (not cycling)
What are the most common routes of infection in pyometra?
ascending infection thru cervix (most common): post-coital, postpartum, poor conformation (mares)
What is the difference b'twn follicular & luteal cysts?
follicular: usually enlarged
cystic follicles have functional theca --> produce estrogens --> may show signs of estrus

luteal: wall is partially luteinized (--> progesterone)
assoc. w/ anestrus
*distinguish from cystic corpora lutea
-ovulation has occurred & they are of no clinical significance (common)
-these cows will cycle, ovulate, usually maintain pregnancy (normal)
What is the top ddx for vaginitis/vulvitits in all species?
herpesvirus
ovarian adenoma/adenocarcinoma

a. most common in what species?
b. common clinical finding
a. dog
b. ascites
What is the most common tumor of the vagina/vestible/vulva?
leiomyoma/fibroleiomyoma

most common in dog: benign, often multiple masses
What are possible sequelae to fetal death?
abortion, mummification, maceration, stillbirth, resorption
What are common causes of abortion in:

a. dogs
b. cats
a. bacterial, herpesvirus
b. feline rhinotracheitis virus (herpesvirus)
mammary hyperplasia

a. signalment
b. tx
a. occurs most frequency in female cats < 1 yo that are cycling or pregnant
b. may regress spontaneously, or OVH
mammary neoplasia in dogs

a. biologic behavior
b. most common tumor
a. 70% benign
b. mixed mammary tumor (benign: epithelial & mesenchymal elements)
What is the biologic behavior of mammary neoplasia in cats?
70% malignant
carcinoma: potential for widespread mets: regional lymph nodes, lungs
What is the main use of vaginal cytology in vet med?
use cytology & progesterone surge to determine when to artificially inseminate

cells go from nucleated --> un-nucleated when approaching estrus