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40 Cards in this Set

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What is required for formation of a zygote?
Fertilization: fusion of male and female gametes
What structures are responsible for gamete production?
Gonads (testes, ovaries)
What structures are responsible for gamete storage and nourishment?
Accessory glands/organs
What structures are responsible for gamete transport?
Ducts
What structures are responsible for fertilization?
External genitalia
What is the role of the testis?
Secrete androgens, produce spermatozoa (sperm)
Describe the path the sperm takes during ejaculation.
Testis-->epididymis-->ductus deferens (vas deferens)-->ejaculatory duct-->urethra
Describe the role of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands during ejaculation.
Secrete various fluids into ducts and urethra; they are accessory organs.
Label Diag 4
1. Pubic symphysis
2. Urinary bladder
3. Rectum
4. Ureter
5. Seminal vesicle
6. Prostate gland
7. Ejaculatory duct
8. Anus
9. Bulbourethral gland
10. Ductus deferens
11. Epididymis
12. Scrotum
13. External urethral meatus
14. Penis
15. Penile urethra
16. Testis
Function of seminiferous tubules?
Produce sperm and hormones
What is the unction of the epididymus?
Sperm maturation
Label Diag. 5
1. Septa
2. Seminiferous tubules
3. Rete testis
4. Ductus deferens
5. Efferent ductule
6. Epididymis
7. Skin
8. Dark muscle
9. Fascia
10. Cremaster muscle
11. Vagina
12. Scrotum
13. Albuginea
14. Scrotal cavity
15. septa
16. lobule
17. Raphe
In the basal compartment of seminiferous tubules, what occurs?
Mitosis of spermatogonium (diploid) into primary spermatocyte (diploid)
What occurs in the luminal compartment?
Primary spermatocyte prepares for meiosis I (DNA rep, synapsis, tetrad formation), enters Meiosis one to produce secondary spermatocytes, enter meiosis II to becomes spermatids (haploid), enter spermiogenesis (physical maturation) to spermataozoa (halpoid)
What occurs in the interstitital cells of the seminigerous tubules?
Steroid synthesis (androgens)
Role of FSH and testosterone?
Stimulate sustentacular cells to engage in spermatogenesis
Role if inhibin?
Sustencatular cells secrete it in response to factors released by developing spermatozoa to depress pituitary production of FSH (feedback control of spermatogenesis)
Role of androgen-binding protein?
Binds androgens (tesotsterone mainly) in fluid contents of seminiferous tubules (elevates concentrations of androgens within tubules helping to stimulate spermiogenesis); ABP production stimulated by FSH
Role of Mullerian-Inhibiting Factor?
Secreted by sustentacular cells in developing testes to cause regression of fetal mullerian ducts (impt for uterine tubes and uterus)
About what percent of semen volume is contributed by the epididymis?
5%
About what percent of semen volume is contributed by the seminal vescile?
60%: contains fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen
About what percent of semen volume is contributed by the prostate gland?
30; acidic, seminalplasmin
About what percent of semen volume is contributed by the bulbourethral glands?
3% (or less); alkaline mucus
Role of prostaglandins?
Stimulate smooth muscle contractions along reproductive tracts
Role of fibrinogen?
After ejaculation, forms clot (temp) within vagina.
Describe the ampulla.
Expanded portion of ductus deferens
Role of seminalplasmin?
antibiotic that may help prevent UTI in males
Role of mucus in Cowper's glands?
It's thick, alkaline, helps neutralize any urinary acids in urethra; lubricates glans
Label Diag 6
1. deferens
2. ureter
3. sem vesicle
4. ampulla
5. duct of sem ves
6. ejaculatory duct
7. prostate gland
8. urethra
9. urogenital diaphragm
10. bulbourethral gland
11. urinary bladder
Roles of testosterone? Targets?
Stimulate spermatogenesis and sperm maturation (target = sustentacular cells); affects behavior (CNS--libido); sitmulates metabolism, protein synthesis, muscle growth; establish/maintain secondary sex characteristics: facial hair, muscle mass, body size, adipose tissue (locn, amt); maintain accessory glands and organs of male reprod tract
Label Diag 7
1. Vesi pouch
2. U bladder
3. pubic symph
4. Urethra
5. Paraurerethral glands
6. Clitoris
7. Labium minus
8. Labium majus
9. Greater vestibular gland
10. Anus
11. Vagina
12. Rectum
13. Cervix
14. Fornix
15. SIgmoid colon
16. Rectouterine pouch
17. Endometrium
18. Perimetrium
19. Myometrium
20. UTerus
21. Ovary
22. Uterine tube
23. Broad ligament
What is the process of ovum production known as? How often does it occur? What cycle is it a part of?
Oogenesis; monthly, ovarian cycle: follicular phase (preovulatory), luteal phase (postovulatory)
In what female reproductive structure does fertilization occur? How long after ovulation? During passage from where to where?
Uterine tube
12-24 hrs post ovulation
From infundibulum to uterus
Name and describe (including roles) of the three layers comprising the uterine wall.
Myometrium: outer muscular layer; support + protection

Endometrium: thin, inner, glandular mucosa: nutrition/waste removal

Perimetrium: incomplete serosa continuous with peritoneum
The uterine cycle is determined by repeating series of changes in where?
During what periods of life does this cycle continue?
Describe the three phases.
Endometrium
Menarche-->Menopause

Menses: degeneration of endometrium; menstruation

Proliferative phase: Restoration of endometrium (stimulated by estrogen)

Secretory phase: endometrial glands enlarge an accelerate secretion rates (stimulated by progestin/estrogens)
What are the three major functions of the vagina?
Passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids

Receives penis during intercourse

Forms inferior portion of birth canal
Role of FSH in female reproductive cycle?
Stimulate follicular devel't
Role of LH in female reproductive cycle?
Maintain structure/secretory function of corpus luteum
Role of estrogens in female reproductive cycle?
Multiple functions
Role of progesterones in female reproductive cycle?
Stimulate endometrial growth and secretion