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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
which sperm stages are haploid?
secondary spermatocyte (2N)
spermatid (N)
what is diploid, 4N?
primary spermatocyte
what is diploid, 2N?
spermatogonium
inhibin inhibits__________
testosterone inhibits ________
FSH
GnRH
what does androgen-binding protein do?
ensure testosterone in seminiferious tubules is high
what do sertoli cells make?
ABP
inhibin
Mullerian inhibiting factor
what does 5-alpha reductase do?
convert testosterone to DHT
what does aromatase do and where?
convert testosterone and androstendione to estrogen in adipose tissue
androstenedione to estrogen in granulosa cell
where is androstenedione made in the female?
theca cell, stimulated by LH
what hormones does the placenta make?
estriol
progesterone
hCG (acts like LH to maintain corpus luteum)
what indicates ovulation?
elevation of progesterone
what does the corpus luteum make?
how does it relate to menstrution?
progesterone
regressing corpus luteum causes menstruation
what does the adrenal cortex make?
androstenedione
progesterone
what causes ovulation?
LH surge
what do oral contraceptives do?
prevent estrogen and LH surge, thus preventing ovulation
meiosis I is arrested in ___________ until _________
prophase until ovulation
meiosis II is arrested in ___________ until _________
metaphase until fertilization
what characterizes a secondary follicle?
the antrum is forming
what characterizes a mature follicle?
antrum
theca externa
theca interna
differential for hCG?
normal pregnancy
hydatidiform mole
choriocarcinoma
gestational trophoblastic tumor
triad of preecampsia?
HTN
proteinuria
edema
what is the HELLP syndrome?
hemolysis
elevated LFTs
low platelets
what is elevated in polycystic ovaries?
LH production
germ cell tumors with increased hCG?
germinoma
choriocarcinoma
Schiller-Duval bodies?
yolk sac tumor
Call-Exner bodies?
granulsoa cell tumor
small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions
Meig's syndrome?
ovarian fibroma
ascites
hydrothorax
multilocular cyst?
mucinous cystadenoma
features of Leydig cell tumor?
Reinke crystals
gynecomastia from androgen overproduction
what is sclerosing fibrocystic disease?
increased acini
intralobular fibrosis
where does is epithelial hyperplasia occur?
terminal duct lobule
lymphocytic, good prognosis?
medullary tumor
arises from mammary duct epithelium or lobular glands?
intraductal papilloma
connective tissue and cysts?
cystosarcoma phyllodes
what is sclerosing fibrocystic change?
increased acini
intralobular fibrosis
most common invasive breast carcinoma?
invasive ductal carcinoma
freatures on invasive lobular carcinoma?
multiple, bilateral
indian file cells
bloody discharge
features of Leydig cell tumor?
Reinke crystals
gyenocomastia in men
precocious puberty in boys
cord-like structures?
sertoli cell tumor
lined with fallopian-tube-like epithelium?
serous cystadenoma
spindle-shaped fibrobasts?
ovarian fibroma
what is a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary?
atypia and diorganization without stromal invasion
most common ovarian non-germ cell tumor?
SEROUS cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
what are PLAP+ ?
germinomas
what tumor has an increased risk with cryptorchidism?
seminoma
hyperchromatic syncitiotrophoblasts?
choriocarcinoma
theca-lutein cyst?
choriocarcinoma
most common malignant germ cell tumor?
germinoma
2nd most common germ cell tumor?
embryonal carcinoma
painful testicular mass?
embryonal carcinoma
germ cell tumor with glandular differentiation?
embryonal carcinoma
most common germ cell neoplasm?
mature tertoma
most common gynecologic malignancy?
endometrial carcinoma
endometrial hyperplasia manifests clinically as...
vaginal bleeding
lateral invasion of what blocks ureters and causes renal failure?
invasive carcinoma of the cervix
occur during the 3rd trimester?
preeclampsia
abruptio placentae
hisotlogy of a hydatidiform mole?
cystic swelling of chorionic villi
proliferation of chorionic epithelium (trophoblasts)
genotype of a complete mole?
46XX
which lobes in BPH?
prostatic carcinoma?
lateral and middle lobes
peripheral zone (posterior lobe)
masculinization of genitalia at puberty?
5-alpha reductase deficiency
normal appearing female with no pubic/axillary hair, and a rudimentary vagina?
androgen insensitivity
(testicular feminization)
genotpye of a true hermaphrodit?
XX or XXY
which CAH causes female pseudohermaphroditism?
21-hydroxylase deficiency
normal levels of testosterone/estrogen, LH?
5-alpha reductase deficiency
very high FSH?
Turner syndrome
what inhibits LH and FSH in women?
estrogen (LH) and progesterone
estrogen made in ovary?
placenta?
estradiol (most potent)
estriol (weakest)
non-sexual affects of testosterone?
anabolic affect on protien
fuses epiphyseal plates
increases RBC