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95 Cards in this Set

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What two foods do we obtain vitamin B12 from?
Red meat and dairy products
Why is vitamin B12 important?
It's a coensyme in the production of nucleic acids.
What two products do we obtain follic acid from?
Whole grain products, and green, leafy vegies.
Why is follic acid important?
Follic acid is a coensyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism.
What products do we obtain Vitamin C from?
Fruits and green leafy vegetables
What Vitamin is important in forming collagen, cement in the bones and teeth, connective tissue of blood vessels, resistance to infection?
Vitamin C
___________helps the production of the thyroid hormone.
iodine
Helicobacter pylori weakens mucosa barriers and increases susceptibility to ________.
ulcers
What cells secrete HCl?
parietal cells
Which type of cells secrete pepsinogen?
Chief cells
Pepsinogen is a _____________.
protein digesting enzyme
Which hormone regulates HCl levels in stomach?
gastrin
_________is partially digested food mixed with gastrin juice.
chyme
Perricious anemia is a low ____ Blood Cell count.
Red
Goiter hyperthyroidism is over secretion of _________
thyrxin
Over secretion of the thyroxin that causes the lack of iodine in the diet is ______________ disease.
Grave's
Exophthalmic goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland and protrusion of which body part?
eye balls
Hypothyroidism is the _____secretion of the thyroid gland.
under
Cretinism is the under secretion of the thyroxin during infancy. It causes _______ and/or _______.
short stature, mental retardation
Destroy infected body cells
T cells
Label microbes for destruction, secrete antibodies, and produce the humoral response.
B cells
WBC's that patrol the bloodstream and ingest bacteria are called _________
macrophages
Macrophages also activate the _____cells
helper T
The humoral immune response refers to an ant-________
body
MHC proteins distinguish ________ cells from _______ cells.
foreign, self
antibodies are proteins called ________
immunoglobulins
Memory B cells
patrol body's tissues
______cells initiate inflammatory response
mast
Histamines increase _______production
mucus
Endocrine glands help in the ______process.
metobalic
T or F
Exocrine glands have ducts and are completely enlosed.
F>not completely enclosed
Neuroendocrine system combines which systems
Nervous and endocrine
Negative feedback regulates _______
hormonal levels
lgM
first to be secreted
lgG
secondary response
lgD
receptors for antigens found on B cell surfaces
lgA
found in saliva and mother's milk
lgE
produces allergic symptoms
Two hormones necessary for survival
parathyroid (regulates calcium) and aldosterone
Thyroxine increases metabolic rate and promotes ___________
growth
fission is division of what type of organism
protists
In cnidarians, a separating part of the body into young is called________
budding
Union of sperm and egg forms the ______
zygote
parthegogenisis is teh virgin birth in _______
arthropods
oviparity is when the egg fertilizes internally but is deposited
externally
________is when the fertilized egg (internally) and the embryo recieves nourishment from the egg yold
ovoviviparity
When the young gets nourishment from the blood of the mother
viviparity
Another way of saying "in heat"
estrus
estrous cyle aka _________
reproductive cycle in females
induced ovulations in rabbits and cats is when the female ovulates after copulation as a result of reflex stimulation of which hormone?
LH
protogny is female to male as
_______ is from male to female
protandry
34 degrees celsius is the temperature of the
testes
the sperm matures in the ___________
epididymis
The long tubules connecting to teh urethra are the __________
vas deferens
Tubes where sperm is made
seminiferous tubules
The reproductive and urinary tracts comine at the __________
urethra
ovaries are the outer layer of the ___________
oocytes
Egg maturation aka __________
ovulation
transport ova from ovaries to uterus
fallopian tubes
the endometrium _______during menstruation
sheds
This hormone triggers the final egg development and produces estrogen
FSH
THe follicle is the oocyte and surrounding areas and secretes ________
estrogen
This hormone causes ovulation and sends the egg into _______
fertilization
The corpus luteum secretes _______ in females
progesterone
__________targets teh kidney tubules and maintatins proper balance of sodiuma and potassium ions
Aldosterone
_______makes people adapt to long term stress, raises teh blood glucose levels, and mobilizes fat
cortisol
Breads, cereals, and grains are all dietary sources for ___________carbs, and candy, ice cream, and soft drinks are dietary sources for ________carbs.
complex, simple
These are composed of amino acids, the building material for hair, skin, etc, and are obtained through dairy products, nuts, and cereals.
proteins
Used for phospholipid production and is an essential fatty acid. It's in butter, margarine, oils, etc
linoleic acid
Peristalsis are rhythmic waves in the ______to swallow.
esophogus
Bolus is food that is ________
chewed
Pepsinogen and _______cells
chief
The small intestine secretes enzymes, the liver sevretes bile, and the pancreas secretes ___________
sodium bicarbonate
_______and ________increases the surface area of the small intestine
villi and microvilli
mast cells release _________
histamine
a tropic hormone
stimulates other glands
The excessive growth of the thyroid gland
goiter
hyperthyroidism is the over secretion of thyroxin and is also known as ________disease
Grave's
Cretinism is mental retardation and short stature due to _________as an infant
hypothyroidism
Development of breasts and development during pregnacy (hormone)
progesterone
The hormones insulin and glucagen are from which gland
pancreas
The parathyroid (PTH) hormone stimulates calcium reabsorbtion and targets the bones, kidneys, and ______
digestive tract
Oxytocin (OT)targets the uterus and mammary glands and stimulates the ejaculation of __________
milk
Vasopressin (ADH) target the ______
kidneys
The hormone prolactin (PRL) sustains the production of this after birth.
milk
Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH)stimulates the secretion of ________hormones
thyroid
The hormone Adrenocorticotropic secretes the _________ and cortical hormones
Adrenal
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the ovarian follicle and secretion of estrogen and in males stimulate the production of what cells?
sperm
This hormone stimulates metabolic rate
thyroid hormone
_ Cells initaite B and T cell responses
T
________cells kill infected cells
Cytotoxic
________T cells terminate the immune response
supressor
________detect foreign antigen and releases interleukin 1
macrophages
After the hypothalamus signals teh pituitary gland to release hormones into the bloodstream, the hormone binds to a receptor cell ant then binds to a receptor proteins which does what?
changes shape causing the cell to change
_________release hormones within the body
endocrine glands