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57 Cards in this Set

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Length of Menstrual Cycle
average 28 days
may vary from 18 to 40 days
Name the 5 phases of the Menstrual Cycle
1. Menstrual Phase
2. Follicular (proliferative) Phase
3. Ovulation
4. Luteal Phase
5. Premenstrual Phase
- Period of uterine bleeding accompanied by shedding of the endometrium

- Follicle begins to develop in ovary

- Average length is 4 to 5 days
Menstrual Phase
- Endometrium is repaired & thickens

- Follicle continues to develop & secretes estrogen

- Average length: 9 to 10 days
Follicular (proliferative) Phase
- Endometrium continues to grow

- Graafian follicle ruptures & liberates ovum (which moves into the uterine tubes

- Average occurrence in on the 14th day
Ovulation
- Endometrium continues to thicken in preparation for the ovum if it is fertilized

- Corpus luteum begins to develop in ruptured follicle & secretes progesterone

- Average Length: 10 - 12 days

Note: If fertilization occurs then the menstrual cycle is broken & pregnancy begins.
Luteal Phase
- Arteries constrict & endometrium becomes anemic & shrinks

- Corpus luteum of ovary begins involution & reduces production of hormones, especially progesterone

- Average Length: 1 or 2 days.
Premenstrual or
Ischemic Phase
Menstrual Irregularity: absence of flow when normally expected
Amenorrhea
Menstrual Irregularity: Scanty Flow
Oligomenorrhea
Can occur during perimenopaus
Menstrual Irregularity: Painful Menstruation
Dysmenorrhea
Menstrual Irregularity: Excessive flow (& loss of blood) during menstruation
Menorrhagia
Menstrual Irregularity: Loss of blood during intermenstrual periods; also called spotting
Metrorrhagia
Pregnancy begins with ______ of the ovum.
fertilization
As soon as the sperm enters the ovum, ____ changes take place and the _____ begins to form.
cellular

embryo
Umbilical cord forms and extends from the ______ to the ________
placenta

embryo
Through the umbilical chord _____ umbilical arteries carry blood from the fetus to the capillaries of the fetal placenta and the ____ ____ returns the blood to the fetus
two

umbilical vein
How long does it take for the fetus to develop before it is born?
~280 days
The fetus floats in a bag of ____ _____?
amniotic fluid
How does the mother's body perform the functions of waste elimination & acquiring cell food for the growth of the fetus?
Osmosis through the
placental membranes
The fetus is delivered when the cervix of the uterus dilates & flattens enough for the fetus to be pushed into the vaginal canal bu the muscles in the ______ body & _______
fundus

vagina
The penetration of a secondary oocyte by a single sperm cell
syngamy
Fertilization of a secondary oocyte by more than one sperm.
polyspermy
The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium
implantation
The fusion of the genetic material from a haploid sperm & a haploid secondary oocyte into a single diploid nucleus.
fertilization
The induction by the female reproductive tract of functional changes in sperm that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.
capacitation
the examination of embryonic cells sloughed off into the amniotic fluid.
amniocentesis
An abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by sudden hypertension, large amounts of protein the urine, & generalized edema.
preeclampsia
The process of giving birth
parturition
The period of time (about 6 weeks) during which the maternal reproductive organs & physiology return to the pre-pregnancy state.
puerperium
the control of inherited traits by the combined effects of many genes.
polygenic inheritance
the two alternative forms of a gene that code for the same trait and are at the same location on the homologous chromosomes.
alleles
inheritance based on genes that have more than two alternate forms; an example is the inheritance of blood type.
multiple-allele inheritance
Cell in which one or more chromosomes of a set is added or deleted
aneuploid
Refers to an individual with different alleles on homologous chromosomes
heterozygous
Traits linked to the X chromosome
sex-linked inheritance
Neither member of the allelic pair is dominant over the other, & the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between the homozygous dominant & homozygous recessive
incomplete dominance
Refers to how the genetic makeup is expressed in the body
phenotype
A homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, or heterozygous genetic makeup; the actual gene arrangement
genotype
Refers to a person with the same alleles on the homologous chromosomes.
homozygous
individuals who possess a recessive gene ( but do not express it) & can pass the gene to their offspring.
carriers
An allele that masks the presence of another allele and is fully expressed
dominant trait
the embryonic membrane that entirely surrounds the embryo
amnion
functions as an early site of bloof formation; contains cells that migrate into the gonand & differentiate into the primitive germ cells
yolk sac
Becomes the principal part of the placenta; produces human chorionic gonadotropin
chorion
modifies endometrium after implantation has occurred; separates from the endometrium after the fetus is delivered
decidua
Contains the vascular connections between mother & fetus
umbilical cord
Allows oxygen & nutrients to diffuse from, maternal blood into fetal blood
placenta
Serves as an early site of blood vessel formation; its blood vessels serve as the umbilical connection in the placenta between mother & fetus
allantois
finger-like projections of the chorion that are bathed in maternal blood sinuses, thereby bringing maternal & fetal blood vessels into close proximity.
chorionic villi
a hollow sphere of cells that enters the uterine cavity
blastocyst
cells produced by cleavage
blastomeres
the developing individual from week nine of pregnancy until birth
fetus
the outer covering of cells of the blastocyst
trophoblast
Membranes derived from trophoblast
chorion
early divisions of the zygote
cleavage
a solid sphere of cells still surrounded by the zona pellucida
morula
event in which differentiation into the three primary germ layers occurs
gastrulation