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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gamete
sex cell
dartus muscle
surrounds teste, smooth muscle
cremaster muscle
voluntary contraction of the testis - skeletal muscle
scrotum
supports, protects, regulates the position
scrotal septum
divides the left and right testis to reduce disease/infection transmission
testes
1 1/2 inches X 1 inch - produce gametes, hormones - left is lower
4 male transportation ducts
epididymes, ductus deferentia, ejaculatory duc, urethra
primary sex organs
testes
penis
copulatory organ
secondary sexual characteristics
hormonal - voice, fat, hair distribution
tunica vaginalis
inner layer of the testes
tunica albuginea
outer layer of the testes, folded inward, compartments of 250-300 lobules
seminiferous tubules
28 inches long - 2-3 within each lobule - function unit of the testes, sperm production here
spermatogenesis
formation of sperm
rete testis
efferent ductules
sustentacular cells
w/in seminiferous tubules, sperm mature, nutrients
interstitial cells
b/w seminiferous tubules, hormone secreting
diploid
46 chromosomes
haploid
23 cells
flagella
sperm tail
epididymes
highly coiled - 17 ft. - stores sperm - mature (2 months)
ductus deferentia
smooth muscle - 18 inches
digestive enzymes
eat away at the egg
seminal fluid
semen, ejaculate, prostate
seminal vessicle
mobility, longetivity
prostate
5 lobules, 5 ducts - open into the urethra - survival of sperm
bulbourethral gland
open onto urethra - pea shaped - pre-ejaculatory - muscous cleans out urethra
membranous urethra
muscle, bulbourethral, internal urethral sphincter
prostatic urethra
that portion of the male urethra passing through the prostate between the neck of the bladder and the membranous urethra
spongy urethra
The portion of the male urethra, about 15 cm in length, which traverses the corpus spongiosum
shaft
body of the the penis
glans
tip of the penis
pre-puce
foreskin, covers glans
erectile tissue
has lots of vascular spaces, fills with blood --> erection
corpora cavernosa
posterior, paired
corpora spongeosum
anterior on the penis, single, urethra goes through
erection
vascular spaces engorge with blood, penis hardens - S 2 3 4 - concious or reflexive - parasympathetic
emission
movement of the sperm into the ejaculatory duct - stimulus - sympathetic reaction
ejaculation
expulsion of sperm
Similarities in M/F systems
-F more complex than M
-M and F systems develop from the same embryonic tissues, homologous structures
-Both have gonads that produce gametes and hormones
-Latent development of systems - functional during puberty
Differences in M/F
-Male doesn't develop any sperm until puberty
-Males reproductive throuhgout life
-Females reproduction is a cycle
-Females menstruate
-Females have menopause
primary sex organs
gonads, ovaries - produce ova and sex hormones
vagina
receives penis and semen, birth canal
external genitalia
protects the vaginal opening
uterine (fallopian) tubes
egg is transported toward the usterus, site for fertilization
uterus (womb)
implantation and devlopment occur here, muscular walls also active during parturition
ovaries
paired primary sex organ, produces gametes, produces estrogen and progesterone, 1.4 in. X .4 in., positioned on either side of the uterus
broad ligament
supports the uterus and uterine tube
mesovarium
extension of the broad ligament that attaches to the ovary
ovarian ligament
ovaries supported by, attaches to the uterus
suspensory ligament
attaches to pelvic wall, also supports ovary
oogonia
5 months gestation - 6-7 million
primary oocytes
caused by meiosis - beginnings of oogensis - after the 1st meiotic division begins, oogenisis stops
number of primary oocytes at puberty
300-400,000
primoridal follicles
primary oocytes not stimulated to complete the 1st meiotic division are contained within these tiny follicles
follicular epithelium
in response to several hormons collectively called gonadotrophin (secreted by the anterior pituitary) some of these oocytes and follicles get larger, and the follicle cells divide to produce this, which surrounds the oocyte and fills the follicle
primary follicle
follicle at the follicular epithelium stage
secondary follicle
some primary follicles stimulated to grow even bigger, develop this fluid filled cavity
secondary oocyte
meiotic division does not form 2 complete cells, but one gets all the cytoplasm
polar body
other cell formed by meiotic division -eventually fragments and disappears
vesicular ovarian follicle
so big it can be seen as a bulge on the surface of the ovary - one secondary follice's continued growth, 10-14 days after the first day on menustration
ovulation
hormonal stimulation (sudden burst of lutenizing hormone for the anterior pituitary trigger by a peak level of estrogen) the mature follicle will rupture and extrude its secondary oocyte near the opening of the uterine tube
corpus luteum
the empty follicle stimulated by hormones becomes this
corpus albicans
corpus luteum regresses and changes into a nonfunctional...
fallopian tubes
conducts the zygote to the uterus, fertilization here, 4 in. long
infundibulum
funnel-shaped open-ended portion of the uterine tubes
fimbriae
finger-like processes projected from the infundibulum to cover the lateral end of the ovary
internal mucosal layer
continuous with the mucosa of the uterus and vagina - infections can enter and cause infections in the pelvis (PID)
muscularis middle layer
smooth muscle, peristaltic contractions move the oocyte or zygote to the tube
serous layer
part of the visceral peritoneum
blastocyte
slightly matured zygote
ectopic pregnancy
implantation somewhere other than the uterus (often uterine tube)
uterus
hollow, thick-walled, muscular, upside down pear shaped - 2.8 in long, 2 in. wide, 1 in. diameter
fundus
dome shaped part of the uterus with entrance to the uterine tubes
body
enlarged main portion of the uterus
cervix
inferior constricted portion opening onto the vagina
cervical canal
space between the fundus and the body -continuous inferiorly with the cervical canal which opens into the vagina
isthmus of uterus
junction of the uterine cavity with the cervical canal
uterine ostium
opening of the cervical canal into vaginal cavity
uterine ostium
opening of the cervical canal into vaginal cavity
rectouterine folds
paired, uterus to sacrum, folds of peritoneum from either side of the rectum anteriorly
cardinal ligament
cervix and vagina laterally to pelvic wall
round ligament
lateral border of uterus to lateral pelvis wall - continuous with ovarian ligament
perimetrium
thin, out serous covering - part of the peritoneum
myometrium
smooth muscle, very thick, stimulated for contractions
endometrium
inner mucosal lining, two layers

-stratum functionale - superficial, shed during menstruation

-stratum basale - deeper layer, vascular, regenterates strat. func.
vagina
tubular organ 3.6 inches long, between bladder and rectum, continuous with the cervical canal, uterus attached at nearly a 90 degree angle
fornix
dep recess behind protrusion of the cervix into the vagina (cervical caps/diaphragms go here)
vaginal orifice
exterior opening of the vagina at the lower end
hymen
partially covers vaginal orifice
mucousal layer (vagina)
transverse folds (rugae), glands, acidic mucous
muscularis layer (vagina)
smooth muscles, distends during parturition
fibrous layer (vagina)
covers vagina and attaches it to surrounding pelvic organs
vulva
external genitalia, surrounds orifice, swells and turns blue during pregnancy (8-12 wks.)
mons pubis
pad of adipose connective tisue, covers pubic symphysis, hair covered, cushions during coitus
labia majora
-2 thickened longitudinal folds of connective tissue, adipose tissue, smooth muscle - glands - enclose and protect
pudendal cleft
labia minora and clitoris located here
episiotomy
cutting of orifice that extends into the perineum - facilitates delivery
labia minora
2 smallers folds close together within majora, hairless w/ sebaceous glands, splits to form prepuse of clitoris
clitoris
small, rounded, erectile tissue (corpora cavernosa) - .8 in. long, .2 diameter
vaginal vestibule
longitudinal cleft enclosed by the labia minora with opening for urethra and vagina - lubricated (vestibular glands) - erectile tissues (vestibular bulbs)
breast
15-20 lobes divided by adipose tissue, lobes divided into lobules, alveoli secrete milk
suspensory ligament
between lobules from skin to CT covering pectoralis major to support the breasts
mammary ducts
convergence of alveoli
ampulla
milk stored
ovulation/menstruation
hypothalamus controls, cyclic event
menstrual phase
bloody discharge, first 3-5 days
proliferative phase
days 5-14, tissue regrows
secretory phase
days 14-28 - glandular secretions and blood - nourish blastocyte - last 3-4 days, PMS
The Pill
synthetic estrogen and progesterone - increase in blood levels of ovarian steroids - negative feedback inhibitions of gonadotrophin secretion - ovulationever occurs - cycle is like a luteal phase with high progesterone/estrogen and low gonadotrophins