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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chromosome and gene which determines sex
Y chromosome.
srY gene
Definition of phenotypic sex
Distinguishing characteristics of males and females.
Name of structure formed after union of sperm and egg
zycote
Name of ducts initially present, one of which will be developed into males or females
Wolffian ducts - male
Mullerian ducts - female
Presence of these two hormones necessary for development of Woffian ducts into male reproduction tract.
testosterone
MIS (Mullerian-inhibiting substance)
Panpiniform plexus?
Veins from testis wrap around artery to testis => cooled blood to testis.
Vas deferens?
Sperm duct
Epididymis
- Function of head and body?
- Function of tail?
Head and body - maturation of sperm
Tail - limited storage of sperm
Another name for sperm and eggs.
gametes
What are the the intitial cells from which sperm are formed?
T-cells
During meiosis, what type of sperm cells are formed? Give name and levels.
primary spermatocytes
secondary spermatocytes
What type of tissue covers the tunical albuginea?
simple cuboidal epithelium - germinal epithelium.
What is the function of the ovaries?
Germ cell production.
Estrogen and progesterone production.
What is the composition of semen?
Sperm, seminal fluid, prostate fluid, lymphocytes.
List the (4) organs of the female.
Ovaries
Ovaducts
Uterus
Cervix
List the functions and characteristics of the ovaducts.
Transporation duct for an egg
Site of initial fertilization.
Site for early embryonic development
Lined with cilliated epithelium.
What is the name of the lining of the uterus?
endometrium
What is the name of the fibrous capsule surrounding the ovary?
tunica albuginea
What is housed within the cortex of the ovary?
Developing gametes.
What are female gametes called?
oocytes
What is the sac-like structure in which ooyctes mature?
follicles
What is the corpus luteum and its function?
Its what remains of a follicle after ovulation.
It becomes an endocrine gland and secretes estrogen and progesterone.
What is the genetic sex determination for females and males in terms of X and Y chromosomes?
XX - female
XY - male
List the steps in the process of spermatogenesis.
Stem Cell => mitosis (spermatogonia formed) => meiosis (primary -> secondary spermatocytes) => spermatid (haplid via metamorphous) => sperm
During mitosis, what type of sperm cells are formed?
spermatogonia
Name of sperm cells that have become haploids via metamorphous
spermatid
What cells make testosterone in the male?
Leydig cells
What is the hormonal action required to stimulate Leydig cells => testosterone?
GnRH (Hypthalamus) =>
LH and FSH (anterior pituitary)
Stimulation of Leydig cells by LH
What is the function of the acrosome? What is it located?
It contains digestive enzymes which allow the sperm to penetrate an egg. It is located on the front of the head of the sperm.
Name of the glycoprotein coat around the oocyte
zona pellucida
Stages of oogenesis and names of "cells" involved
PREBIRTH:
oogonia - stem cell
Mitosis - Primary oocyte
ADOLESCENCE - MENOPAUSE:
Meiosis I - Secondary oocyte plus first polar body
Meiosis II - Zygot plus second polar body (if secondary oocyte fertilized)
These bodies are located around the inner boundary of the secondary oocyte. Name and function of these?
Coritcal granules.
Release enzymes which destroy the sperm receptors on the zona pellucida and harden the zona pellucita.
Steps in fertilization
1. sperm-zp binding
2. acrosome reaction
3. zona penetration
4. sperm/oocyte binding
5. oocyte activation
6. zona reaction
Name of the organelles that surround the inner surface of the secondary oocyte?
cortical granules