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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 anatomical structures of the oviducts?
1) Fimbriae
2) Infundibulum
3) Ampulla
4) Isthmus
What are 4 features of mucosal epithelium in the oviducts?
1) Ciliated epithelium that beat toward the uterus.
2) Non-ciliated epithelium contain "peg cells" that secrete ovum nutrients and sperm activators.
3) Simple columnar epithelium becomes shorter closer to the uterus.
4) Epithelial fold amounts reduce toward the uterus.
What effect does estrogen have on the oviduct?
Stimulates the growth of oviduct epithelium, while increasing the amount cilia.
What are the 4 anatomical structures of the uterus?
1) Fundus
2) Corpus/Body
3) Cervix
4) Uterine wall
What are the 2 components of the cervix?
1) Internal cervical os
2) External cervical os
What are the 3 components of the uterine wall?
1) Endometrium
2) Myometrium
3) Serosa/Adventita
Describe the myometrium.
Thickest layer of the uterine wall, which contains four layers of smooth muscle fiber.
What happens to the myometrium during pregnancy?
Incredible growth of the myometrium via hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and active synthesis of collagen.
What happens to the myometrium after pregnancy?
Destruction of smooth muscle cells, and shrinking of others. Collagen is degraded.
What are the 2 functional layers of the endometrium? What arteries are associated with each?
1) Functionalis - outer layer sloughed off during menstration. Spiral arteries sense the dropping estrogen levels and initiate the sloughing.
2) Basalis - Deeper layer maintained during menstruation, fed by straight arteries.
What is the endocervix (internal os)?
The region of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus.
What is the ectocervix (external os)?
The region of the cervix closest to the vagina.
What does the transition in epithelium from the endocervix (internal os) to the ectocervix (external os) look like?
Endocervix is simple columnar, while the ectocervix is stratified squamous.
ID this on the slide.
What region of the cervix secretes mucous?
Endocervix/internal os.
Describe the 2 phases of secretion by cervical mucous glands.
1) Ovulation - secretion is watery to allow ovum travel.
2) Pregnancy/Late luteal - secretion is viscous to prevent microorganisms and sperm from entering.
What is a Nabothian cyst?
Blockage of cervical glands by a cyst. No observable symptoms.
What days of the cycle are the proliferative phase?
What hormone is secreted during the proliferative phase? What are its effects?
Growth of the functionalis (outer) layer of the endometrium.
Describe the tubular glands during the proliferative phase.
Straight and narrow lumen.
What day of the cycle does ovulation occur?
What days of the cycle does the secretory phase occur?
What hormone acts on the uterus during the secretory phase?
How does progesterone affect the uterus during the secretory phase?
It relaxes the myometrium and induces the secretion of glycoproteins.
Describe tubular glands during the secretory phase.
Coiled with dilated lumens (presumably due to the glycoproteins).
What is the state of the endometrium during the secretory phase?
It is the thickest, about to slough off.
What days of the cycle does the menstrual phase occur?
Which hormone levels drop at the beginning of the menstrual phase? What is the result of this?
LH, then Progesterone and estrogen levels drop because the corpus luteum degenerates.
The drop of which hormone is responsible for the initiation of menstrual phase?
LH will decrease, causing progesterone and estrogen to decrease also.
What are the 2 major events during the menstrual phase?
1) Corpus luteum degeneration
2) Death of the functionalis epithelium, which will slough off and leave the basalis.
Prior to ovulation, what are the levels of estrogen?
Begins low and rises steadily.
Prior to ovulation, what is the effect of the rising estrogen levels?
Positive feedback on the pituitary to release FSH and LH, as estrogen starts to increase.
What are the hormone levels following ovulation?
Estrogen and progesterone levels increase and will peak during the luteal phase.
How will hormones be affected if no fertilization occurs, and what will be the result?
The high level of estrogen (and progesterone) will result in negative feedback of GnRH, decreasing FSH/LH.
Corpus luteum will degenerate and form the corpus albicans.
How will hormones be affected if fertilization does occur?
hCG will be secreted (similar to LH) and will maintain progesterone levels which will sustain the corpus luteum for 6 months.
What are the 3 fetal membranes of the placenta?
1) Amnion
2) Yolk sac
3) Allantois
What are the 2 layers of the placenta allowing communication between the mother and fetus? Which belongs to whom?
1) Chorion (fetal)
2) Decidua (maternal)
What are the 3 layers of the decidua?
1) Decidua basalis (receive chorionic villi)
2) Decidua capsularis (covers the fetus)
3) Decidua parietalis (covers the outer uterine wall).
From where does the decidua derive?
Maternal endometrium.
What type of blood does the umbilical artery carry?
What is Wharton's jelly?
A substance within the umbilical cord surrounding its vessels, which prevents knotting.
What 5 vital components does the mother transfer to the fetus via the placenta?
1) oxygen
2) nutrients
3) vitamins
4) steroid hormones
5) IgG
What 3 waste products are removed from the fetus via the placenta?
1) CO2
2) urea
3) bilirubin
What 4 steroid hormones are produced in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta?
1) hCG
2) estrogen
3) progesterone
4) hCS/placental lactogen
What does placental lactogen do?
Enters maternal circulation and inhibits insulin activity during pregnancy to increase glucose supply to the fetus during maternal malnutrition.
What steroid hormone is produced by the decidua?
What are the 3 layers of the vaginal wall?
1) Mucosa
2) Muscular layer
3) Adventitia
What type of epithelium is found in the vagina?
Stratified squamous.
How does estrogen affect the vagina?
Increases growth and glycogen synthesis.
Why does the vaginal lumen have low pH?
Glycogen is converted to lactic acid by indigenous bacteria.
Where are the mucous glands in the vaginal mucosa?
There aren't any. This is how you can tell esophagus from vagina.
What 2 types of cells exist in a vaginal/pap smear of a woman in her active reproductive years?
1) Superficial cells - squamous epithelial cells with pyknotic nuclei.
2) Intermediate cells - squamous epithelial cells with active (dense, large) nuclei.
What kinds of cells are found in a vaginal/pap smear of a woman that is outside her reproductive years?
Parabasal cells - small, round cells with active (dense) nuclei.
What are the 4 components of the duct system in the mammary gland?
1) Lactiferous sinuses
2) Lactiferous ducts
3) Terminal interlobular ducts
4) Lobule
What is the lactiferous sinus?
A local dilation of the lactiferous duct, just before the duct system reaches the nipple.
What is a lactiferous duct?
The duct system in the mammary gland that carries milk to the nipple.
What is an intralobular duct?
The portion that fills the acinar cells with fluid.
What is acini?
The region where the secretion actually occurs.
What hormone induces the growth of lactiferous ducts during puberty?
Estrogen - develops secretory lobules and accumulates fat in the tissue.
What are the 5 hormones that result in a synergistic growth of alveoli?
1) Estrogen
2) Progesterone
3) Prolactin
4) Oxytocin
5) Placental lactogen
How are inactive mammary glands different from active ones?
There are no secretory acini, no secretory lobules, and lots of adipose in an inactive mammary gland.
*Be able to ID these on a slide.