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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 types of sex?
1) Genetic, or chromosomal
2) Gonadal (ovary vs. testis)
3) Genital (external genitalia)
4) Gender identification (behavioral sex)
What are the characteristics of genetic sex and how is it identified?
Determined by sex chromosomes, XX and XY; especially the Y.
Karyotype analysis.
What are the characteristics of gonadal sex and how is it identified?
Determined by gonadal differentiation by SRY/TDF.
Histology of gonad analysis.
What are the characteristics of genital or phenotypic sexual characteristics and how are they identified?
Determined by hormonal regulation of secondary sexual characteristics.
Physical exam.
What is hermaphroditism?
Presence of both gonadal sexes.
What is male pseudohermaphroditism?
Testes exist, along with some of the female tract and extrenal genitalia.
What is female pseudohermaphroditism?
Ovaries exist, along with some or all of the male tract or genitalia are present.
Describe the meiotic divisions that occur in female oogonia.
Mitosis occurs from primordial germ cells, and meiosis is initiated. Meiosis I will begin and then arrest at prophase just before ovulation in puberty. After puberty meiosis will continue and arrest again at metaphase II. Fertilization will allow meiosis to fully complete.
Describe the meiotic divisions that occur in male spermatogonia.
Mitosis occurs from primordial germ cells and then arrest. Meiosis (spermatogenesis) will resume at puberty and continue to form many mature spermatozoa.
What is unique about the Y chromosome?
Determines the gonadal sex of the male by TDF/SRY.
What is unique about the X chromosome?
Carries the androgen receptor and will develop into a female if no Y chromosome is present.
How does a XX male develop?
TDF transfers to the X chromatid.
What does ovary development depend on?
Two X chromosomes and the absence of a Y chromosome.
What will occur in the situation where one X chromosome is lost, but the other remains?
Ovarian dysgenesis, but the female tract and genitalia would still develop.
What hormone differences are there between males and females?
There are no specific male or female hormones, but each has varying sensitivities to and amounts of different hormones. This results in differentiation of males and females.
What happens to Wolffian ducts in males?
Wolffian ducts develop into the male tract - epididymus, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory duct.
Leydig cell development in the testes will produce testosterone, which will promote Wolffian duct development.
What happens to Mullerian ducts in males?
Sertoli cells in the testes develop and release Anti-Mullerian Hormone, causing the Mullerian duct to atrophy.
*Both these phases occur following the differentiation of testes by SRY/TDF.
What happens to Wolffian ducts in females?
The absence of testosterone causes these to regress.
What happens to Mullerian ducts in females?
Mullerian ducts develop into the female tract - fallopian tube, cervix, upper vagina (in the absence of AMH).
Female structures develop by default in the absence of hormone, but estrogen is required for full development.
What do genital tubercles differentiate into?
Female - clitoris
Male - glans penis
What do labioscrotal folds differentiate into?
Female - labia majora
Male - scrotum