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53 Cards in this Set

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When calculating number of weeks old of a fetus, what would you consider the day of conception?
2 weeks
Up to what age, is a baby's death considered 'infant death'?
1 year old
At what birth weight is a baby considered premature?
1000-2500 grams
How many grams is a fetus considered an abortion?
0-500 grams
What is normal birth weight?
2500-4000 grams
If mother is nulliparous at how many weeks would she experience quickening? A multiparous mother?
20 weeks; 14 weeks;
What is chadwick's sign?
Positive in pregnant mom, cervix gets purple due to engorgement of blood to this area;
What is Hegar's sign?
in pregnant mom, lower uterine segments start to soften and get compressible when you do bimanual & try to feel uterus, you can separate fundus of uterus from cervix b/c its compressible & gets soft
What happens do the pelvic joints and ligaments during pregnancy?
relaxation due to hormones. They get more strechable to prepare for labor. Pubic symphisis starts to separate
Where do you measure fetal growth from?
fundus of uterus
At 20-22 weeks of pregnancy, the abdomen will enlarge to reach what level?
umbilicus
After that time, at what rate should the abdomen enlarge?
1 cm/week
When are braxton-hicks contractions help? How frequent do they occur?
At 28 weeks, they're referred to as false labor. They're every 1 or 2 minutes for an hour. nl as long as they go away. They let you know things are starting to stretch.
When does fetal heart beat begin?
10 weeks
When does fetal movement begin?
18-20 weeks
At what week can you use sonogram to detect pregnancy?
5 weeks
What is urine HcG positive? When does the serum pregnancy test turn positive?
2 weeks. 8 days;
When did people start using prenatal care? What is the goal of prenatal care?
early 20th century; recognize high risk pregnancy.
What is the estimated date of confinement?
due date
What types of questions should be asked when getting the hx of previous pregnancies?
how long pregnancy lasted, whether it was a c-section, nl vaginal delivery, blood transfusion, high BP in pregnancy, diabetes in pregnancy, size of baby, problems w/ N & V
Why is it important to get the blood type of the pregnant patient?
Rh compatability, blood transfusion
what could be a predictor of multiple births?
if pt's mother had fraternal twins
During which time of the pregnancy do fetuses grow at the same rate allowing you to better assess the patient gestational age w/in 5-7 days?
1st trimester; once beyond 20 weeks, more variability in growth.
How can you assess if the the mom's bony pelvis is of adequate diameter to carry a baby?
internal exam. do internal exam using your fingers to press against the ischial spines. Also look @ diagonal conjugate by inserting fingers into vagina and feeling sacral promontory, lifting up to feel pubic symphisis and feeling how much room you have.
Most babies can fit thru what size pelvis?
10cm by 10cm
What should be the length of the cervix in a nulliparous women? In multiparous woman?
4 cm; smaller than 4 but greater than 2 since too small would tell you lower uterine segment is already starting to funnel down indicating premature birth and delivery
What does the Quad test look for? When should you do this test?
checks for neural tube defects, trisomy 18, 21 by looking at alpha feto protein levels; done at 15-20 weeks
What age pregnant moms get genetic testing done? What are the 2 types of tests?
offered to pts over 35;
-Types of tests: Chorionic villi sampling (CVS-->done @ 8-10 weeks) or AMNIO (done at 10-14 weeks).
What other things should you check for on initial prenatal visit?
HB, Hct, blood type, Rh, Syphillis, Hep B, HIV, pap, dipstick (glucose, protein, nitrite), hi risk pts get TB skin test
How would you tx a patient w/ group B strep at 35-37 weeks?
PCN
How often should you see a pregnant patient?
every 4 weeks until 32 weeks and then every 2 weeks until 66 weeks and then weekly
If your pregnant patient gains weight all of a sudden what should you check?
look for fluid retention & make sure BP is normal
What is a normal weight gain during pregnancy?
20-25 lbs
Why should you check for protein and glucose in UA during each visit?
protein-->to make sure she isn't spilling a lot of protein indicating pre-eclampsia;
glucose-->indicating weight gain.
How many extra calories does a pregnant woman need per day?
300-400 calories per day.
Pregnant women need more of what?
protein, folate (for normal neural growth), calcium, iron
What congenital deformity can be prevented by folate?
spina bifida
A subtle change in maternal BP can give clue to what?
early fetal compromise b/c the amt of blood that actually goes to uterus decreases
What is a normal fetal heart rate?
120-160 bts/min
Why should you listen for accelerations & decelerations of fetal heart rate?
When they move, you need to hear an increase in heart rate
At what rate should the fundal height increase?
1 cm/week in past 20 weeks
Is edema normal in pregnancy?
Normal to have dependent edema in late pregnancy BUT upper body edema combined w/ inc BP-->early sign of pre-eclampsia! (FACIAL EDEMA!)
99% of babies are lying in what direction in mom's abdomen?
head down
At what time should you palpate pt's uterus and abdomen to try to feel fetal size & position?
26-28 weeks-->can feel spine, butt, etc.
A persistant abnormal lie of baby in mom's abdomen can indicate what type of problem?
problem w/ placenta-->it may be in lower uterine segment like placenta previa which would prevent baby's head from going down. Pelvis, uterus (FIBROIDS), or fetal size.
In which situations should a pregnant mom get an immediate eval ?
-if she's having regular contractions every 5-10 min; ruptured membranes, vaginal bleeding, dec fetal movement, signs of preeclampsia (dizzy, spots in front of eyes, gain weight rapidly, RUQ pain & swelling in liver), chills & fever (look for amnionitis), severe abdomen or back pain (could be placental abruption)
What are some common complaints of pregnancy?
ptyalism (excessive salivation), PICA--clay or starch, urinary frequenty, vaginal infections, varicose veins, back & pelvic pain, leg cramps (dec cal phosphate & need to inc Ca carbonate or citrate like tums, breast soreness, hand discomfort from carpel tunnel , heartburn, constipating, syncopy, abdominal pain, hemorrhoids
What are the sx's of fetal alcohol syndrome? How much alcohol does the mom need to consume?
-microcephaly, epicanthial folds, low nasal bridge, minor ear abnormalities, short nose, thin upper lip, micrognathia, flat midface, indistinct philtrum, short palpebral features; we don't know how much alcohol is takes to get this;
is sex ok during pregnancy?
yes, except w/ previous preterm deliveries b/c it inc uterine contractions
Are baths ok for pregnant mom?
yes, just be careful of slipping & falling
How much can a pregnant mom work out?
as much as she did pre pregnancy
can a pregnant mom travel?
yes, probably just not towards the end so she can be close to home
what types of infections can lead to preterm labor?
dental, peridontal infections