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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
hCG is initially secreted by what? then what structure take over?
Initally by: blastocyst then syncytiotrophoblasts.
After how mancy days can you detect hCG in urine or maternal blood?
8 days
What other hormones resemble hCG and what is its function?
Resembles: LH, FSH, TSH (aplha and beta subuntis)
Function: Maintains the corpus luteum thru the ist trimester. Stimulates progesterone and E2. Stimulates essential DHEA-S in fetal zone of adrenal gland. hCG receptor in endometrium and myometrium and can inhibit contractions produces by oxytocin. Immunosuppresant
Does hCG have a neg. feelback?
No, its produces in pulses under GnRH stimulation.
What are the factors the contribute to trophoblast differentation?
IGF, TGF, EGF and cytokines
Describe the Double bohr effect.
-Bohr’s effect: Hgb has higher affinity for Oxygen with dec PCO2.
- Double Bohr’s effects:
• Blood is delivery from maternal side if O2 blood.
• Fetal blood has CO2 Hgb
• Fetal blood gives up CO2, crossed the placenta, and increases the [CO2] and dec O2 affinity on maternal side.
• The fetal Hgb has higher affinity for O2 now because it has no CO2 bound to it.
What is the marker to check if fetal adrenal gland and liver are functioning properly.
What enzyme is missing in fetus and what is its function?
3-beta OHSDH is missing which convers Pregnenolone to progesterone
How does the fetus get rid of DHEA so that it is not androgenized?
A sulfate is added in the fetal adrenal galnd which then goes toe eith production of estriol or to the liver where its hydroxylated at 16th C which increases its solubility, and dec biological activity
What are the functions of placenta?
Functions of the Placenta
1.fetal gut in supplying nutrients
2.fetal lung in exchanging O2 and CO2
3.the fetal kidney in regulating fluid volumes and disposing of waste metabolites
4. endocrine gland synthesizing many steroids
and protein hormones that affect both maternal and fetal metabolism
Estrogen inc/dec SBG?
Androgen inc/dec SBG?
Increase; Decrease
What are the functions of Progesterone?
Progesterone – Produced by Placenta
1.Most important for establishment and sustenance of fetus
2.Maintains decidual lining of uterus
3.Produced by placenta formed from cholesterol (90% goes to mother); is major substrate for cortisol and aldosterone by fetal adrenal gland - inhibits uterus contraction by inhibiting Prostaglandin
- hyperthermia and increase cervical mucus to form a thick plug
4.Inhibits uterine contractions – inhibits prostaglandin production and decreases sensitivity to oxytocin