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47 Cards in this Set

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what genes are responsible for (determination) turning an indifferent gonad into testes?
SRY/SOX9 (sex determining region, Y chromosome)
the testis contains leydig cells that are stimulated by what gene to produce testosterone?
SF-1 (steroidogenic factor-1)
describe the route of sperm (from seminferous tubules to urethra).
seminferous tubules -> rete testis -> efferent ductles -> body then tail of epididymus -> vas deferens -> (goes through bladder and ejaculatory duct) -> urethra
what cell in the seminiferous tubules has receptors for LH and secretes testosterone?
Leydig cells; aka Interstitial cells
what cell in the seminiferous tubules secretes FSH and is responsible for the final development of sperm?
sertoli cell
what hormones are involved in spermatogenesis?
FSH, testosterone from Leydig cells, GH (for gonad development and spermatogonia division)
how long is the spermatogenesis process?
74 days
after formation in the seminiferous tubules, where do sperm go and how long does it take them to become motile?
epididymus; after 18-24hrs they become motile
where is sperm stored?
latter part of (tail) epididymus, but mostly in the vas deferens
where does most of the fluid of the ejaculate come from?
seminal vesicles; generate mucoid material containing fructose, citric acid, prostaglandins, fibrinogen
besides the seminal vesicles, what other thing secretes fluid and what is its purpose?
prostate gland secretes milky fluid that is slightly alkaline to buffer the pH of the acidic female
what are the important hormones or factors that are associated with sertoli cells in the seminferous tubules?
it has receptors for FSH; it synthesis inhibin (negative feedback to the anterior pituitary to stop producing FSH), androgen binding proteins, and aromatase (converts testosterone to estrogen); also has some production of estrogens (not alot known about this)
what does the acrosomal cap of a sperm contain to allow it to penetrate the zona pellucida of the female?
hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzymes; the zona P. has receptors that bind the acrosome and cuase release of the enzymes that allow fertilization
very quickly after fertilization, what happens to make the zona pellucida impermeable to other sperm?
influx of Ca++
what tissue in the penis is responsible for erection?
corpus cavernosum (spongiosum is there to support the urethra and the glans)
in regard to cholesterol/steroid hormone synthesis, what protein is important to transport the cholesterol into the mitochondria so it can synthesize steroid homrone?
StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) rate limiting step
how long will sperm live in the female reproductive tract?
2+ days (lecture from chapter 81 says 5 days) so 2-5days
None
how many mililiters is one normal ejaculate? what is a normal sperm count?
3.5ml; 400million sperm total (35-200million per ml); if its less than 20 million = infertile
what is the significance of the location of the testis?what is the term for an undescended testis?
sperm can't live in an elevated temperature environment; testes are outside the body in order to give 2 degrees cooler than the body; cryptorchidism (can give androgen to stimulate drop; may need surgery)
what nerves are involved in the male sexual act?
pudendal nerve through the sacral plexus; ejaculation = sympathetic impulses out of t12-L2 thru hypogastric and pelvic sympathetic plexuses
in regard to the autonomic nervous system, which part is responsible for lubrication? erection? what about ejaculation?
lubrication and erection = parasympathetic; ejaculation = sympathetic (think flight of sperm through the air....hehe)
what chemical compounds are involved in erection?
nitric oxide (vasodilates arteries for filling) and ACh; (nitric oxide is the MOA behind viagra)
what arteries run through both corpa cavernosa?
central artery
what androgen is responsible for virilization of the male in utero? what enzyme is needed to convert testosterone into this androgen?
DHT (dihydrotestosterone); 5alpha-reductase
what is the female equivalent to the leydig cell? sertoli cells?
thecal cells;granulosa cells
which steriods are more biologically active, delta 4 or delta 5?
delta 4 (ie. progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone); delta 5 hormones get converted into delta 4 hormones to become more active by the 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase
how many carbons do androgens, estrogens, progesterones, glucocorticoids have?
estrogens=18; androgens=19 carbonsprogestins and glucocorticoids=21carbons
what does testosterone bind to in the plasma?
45% to SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) and 55% bound to albumin and corticosteroid binding globulin; 2% is free and thus the biologically active testosterone
describe female vs. male meiosis?
there are 2 divisions of meiosis; in females the first meiosis occurs when one mature ovum is formed, the second division of meiosis only occurs if the ovum is fertilized. in males, mitosis and meiosis end up producing 4 spermatozoa during puberty (no pauses)
in the fetal and lifetime of the male, what are the functions/actions of testosterone?
fetal development: development of male repro tract; last 2 months of gestation causes descent of testis; puberty and adult: sexual male characteristics (body hair, voice, skin, muscle, bone, RBCs, Na and H2O reabsorption); after 50 it begins to drop
what are the functions of DHT?
fetal development of penis, urethra, scrotum, and prostate; pubertal growth: growth of scrotum, prostate, sexual hair, and sebacuous glands; adult life: increase in LDL; decrease in HDL
name some forms of male birth control.
vasectomy; hormonal; vaccines targeting gametes
what hormone has been indicated in male pattern baldness?
DHT (dihydrotestosterone); treated with a reductase inhibitor since 5alpha reductase changes testosterone into DHT; reducatase inhibitor (finasteride)
what hormones has been indicated in BPH?
benign prostatic hypertrophy = DHT; treated with reductase inhibitor finasteride
name the treatments used in prostate CA.
flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist; radiotherapy; radical prostatectomy
tumors of the testes are normally made of what types of cells?
there are 2 types of testicular tumors: 1)leydig/interstital cell tumors; they produce large amounts of testosterone; 2) germinal epithelial tumors: produce no hormones; may produce hcG; may see increase in estrogens (may see gynocomastia)
what markers are used to indicate carcinoma/inflammation of the prostate?
PSA/prostate specific antigen; p120; PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), inhibin-a
what are used to treat PE (premature ejac)?
SSRIs; behavior modification
what are some causes of ED?
Diabetes, hypothyroidism (TRH causes release of prolactin- lose regulation)/hyperprolactinemia (will inhibit reproductive system); hypotension, radiation, prostatectomy, lower spinal cord injury, stress, drugs, alcohol
explain the MOA of sildenafil.
viagra(aka sildenafil citrate) is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor; nitric oxide binds to the receptors of the enzyme guanylate cyclase which results in increased levels of cGMP, cGMP is brokendown by PDE 5; so by blocking PDE5, cGMP is increased leading to more smooth muslce relaxation (vasodilation) in the cavernosum --> erection
what is a key sign of someone with postpubertal hypogonadism?
wrinkling of the face
what is the chromosomal abnormality in klinefelter's syndrome and how does the male display?
47XXY; this male has female body type with decreased fertility and underdeveloped genitalia
explain a 5alpha reductase deficiency.
since 5alpha reductase turns testosterone into it's more biologically active DHT, the 46XY male (phenotypic female) has testes that don't drop; has a blind pouch vagina (usually discovered only when menses doesn't occur)
Name some androgen receptor disorders and explain them.
all of them are genotypic males; 1) complete testiculat feminization (looks completely female); 2) incomplete testicular feminization (looks female, but has some male facial hair characteristics); 3)Reifenstein's Syndrome Pseudohermaphrodite: hairless, female like body with small male genitalia; 4)Undervirilized Male: thin frame, less hair, lack of muscles (but overall looks male)
name sites of action of antiandrogens and why would these be used?
5alpha reductase inhibitors; androgen receptor antagonist (may be used in prostatic CA
what role does the pineal gland have on fertility?
pineal gland releases melatonin which is responsible for sleep in collaboration with the suprachiasmatic nucleus; melatonin has negative effects on GnRH secretion and may play a role in seasonal fertility
describe female vs. male mitosis?
female mitosis occurs before birth; males spermatogonia proliferate after puberty