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33 Cards in this Set

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hormones made by placenta
HCG

Growth Hormone Like Hormone

human placental lactogen

estrogen

progesterone
hormones made by placenta
HCG

Growth Hormone Like Hormone

human placental lactogen

estrogen

progesterone
placenta previa
placenta that has implanted across the internal os of the cervix

causes 3rd trimester bleeding
placenta previa
placenta that has implanted across the internal os of the cervix

causes 3rd trimester bleeding
placenta accreta
attachment of placenta directly to uterine muscle without decidua in between

makes it hard to seperate placenta from uterus after delivery
placenta accreta
attachment of placenta directly to uterine muscle without decidua in between

makes it hard to seperate placenta from uterus after delivery
hormones made by placenta
HCG

Growth Hormone Like Hormone

human placental lactogen

estrogen

progesterone
placenta previa
placenta that has implanted across the internal os of the cervix

causes 3rd trimester bleeding
placenta accreta
attachment of placenta directly to uterine muscle without decidua in between

makes it hard to seperate placenta from uterus after delivery -> uterine inversion or massive hemorrhage

other types:
increta: placenta invades into uterine wall
percreta: invades through through the wall and can cause perforation of uterus
causes of placenta accreda
placenta previa

uterine scars

endometritis

submucosal leiomyoma
succenturate lobe
two seperate placental lobes connected by vessels through area without villi

can accidently leave one lobe in after delivery -> post partum hemorrhage
placenta membranacea
chorion is covered with villi -> thin placenta

can cause placenta previa
circumvilli placenta
placenta with a rim of fibrotic tissue around
placental abruptio
separation of placenta before delivery of the fetus

painful, bleeding

associated with DIC
problems with a long cord
a long cord can get knotted

a short cord can cause traction during labor
whats the significance of having only 1 artery in the umbilical cord
normally there are 2 arteries and 1 vein

1 artery is associated with increased infant mortality and congenital malformations
membranous insertion of cord
membrane isnt as strong as on placental disk - can get bleeding
infarction of placenta
baby can be small for getational age or abort
oligohydramnios
decreased amniotic fluid

associated with fetal renal abnormality - fetus can't pee

associated with nodules of fibrin and desquamated squamous cells on surface of amnion
polyhydramnios
fetus usually swollows the amniotic fluid

if fetus has swallowing problems -> too much amniotic fluid
mecoiuim in amniotic fluid
can indicate fetal distress

if fetus aspirates meconium - lung problems
telling monozygotic from dizygotic
different sexes - only dizygotic

if same sex:
monochorionic -> monozygotic
dichorionic -> can be either monozygotic or dizygotic - do genetic test
infection of placenta
ascending usually after rupture of membrane

staph, e-coli

clostridia from do-it-yourself abortions
Less common:
TB
Listeria
Syphilis
chorioangioma
hemangioma of placenta

benign usually

can bleed, or cause heart problems in fetus
trophoblastic tumor
amenorrhea and enlarged uterus

patient throught to be preg

trophoblast infiltrates the uterus without syncytial or cytotrophoblast

currettage to cure, but watch for perforation
complete hyatidiform mole
fertilization of empty egg - diploid DNA results from sperm deuplication

see first trimester bleeding

uterus is large

passage of grape like tissue

see very high HCG (than expected from getation)

snow storm pattern on pelvic ultra sound - no fetus seen

complete uterus is involved
partial hyatidiform mole
fertilization of ovum with 2 sperm -> triploid DNA

uterus is small compared to normal gestation

HCG is lower than compared to gestation

often present as a missed abortion

fetus is present but is abnormal

only part of uterus involved
T/F partial moles have risk of invasive mole or chriocarcinoma
false - complete moles have increased risk of invasive moles or chriocarcinoma
invasive mole
most common form of persistent trophoblastic disease following hyatidaform mole

uterus is large for gestation

persistent bleeding

elevated HCG

hemorrhagic lesion invading the uterinine wall with enlarged dematous villi

can metastases, spread to broad lig

death not common
T/F invasive moles can metastasis
true
choriocarcinoma
develop from mole

hemorrhagic mass in endomerium - lots of invasion of uterus wall

see mixture of malignant syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

no villi

aggresive - mets via blood to lung, liver, brain, kidney

detect elevated HCG after molar preg, abortion, or post partum bleeding
how to treat choriocarcinoma
actinomycin D

methotrexate
amnion nodosum
see small nodules of fibrin and desquamated cells on surface of amnion

abnormal placenta - oligohydramnios

increased risk of congenital malformation

associated with fetal renal problems