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65 Cards in this Set

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What are the fxns of the kidneys?
1. maintenance of homeostatic levels
2. secretion of erythropoietin
3. secretion of renin
4. activation of vitamin D
What are homeostatic levels that kidneys maintain?
ions, pH balance, nitrogenous wastes, and nutritional substances
What is the active form of vitamin D?
dihydrocholicalcferol
What is the derivative of cholesterol that travels in plasma to the liver in the activation of vitamin D?
cholicalciferol
What travels in the plasma to the kidneys in the activation of vitamin D?
hydrocholicalciferol
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
nephron
What is the structure in a nephron that is a bundle of capillaries that is in charge of filtering?
glomerulus
What blood vessel carries blood to the glomerulus?
afferent arteriole
Where is the site of action for aldosterone and ADH?
distal convulated tubule and collecting duct
The descending loop of Henle is permeable to what substance?
water
The ascending loop of Henle is permeable to what substance?
Na+
When blood is filtered thru the glomerulus and enters the Bowman's capsule it is known as what?
filtrate
What (2) pressures opposes filtration?
Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure (PCOP) and Bowman's Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure (BCHP)
What pressure favors filtration?
Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure (GCBP)
What is the equation to determine the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)?
GFR = GCBP - (PCOP + BCHP)
If you have a postive GFR number what will result from that?
filtration
If you have a high GFR what can you conclude about the urine output?
a high urine output
What is defined as valuable substances removed from filtrate & returned to circulation via peritubular capillaries?
reabsorption
If you have a high reabsorption rate what can you conclude about the urine output?
low urine output
What substances are primarily reabsorbed in the process of reabsorption?
vitamins, glucose, amino acids, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-
Where does reabsoprtion primarily occur?
at the convulated tubules
What is the process of movement of substances from the blood in peritubular capillaries into filtrate for excretion as urine?
secretion
If body fluids are too acidic (low pH) then will secretion be high or low?
high
If body fluids are too basic (high pH) then will secretion be high or low?
low
If aldosterone is high, will secretion be high or low?
high
K+ is couple to Na+ reabsorption via what?
aldosterone
Where is the primary location that secretion takes place?
At the distal convulated tubule and the collecting duct
How is GFR regulated?
by myogenic autoregulation
If GFR increases, what will the afferent arteriole do and what will happen to the GFR?
it will constrict and the blood flow to glomerulus will decrease, the GCBP will decrease, making the GFR decrease
If GFR decreases, what will the afferent arteriole do and what will the end result be to the GFR?
It will dilate and the blood flow to the glomerulus will increase, the GCBP will increase, and the GFR increases
What cells in nephrons are sensitive to a decrease in GFR?
Granular/vascular cells
What will happen to the granular/vascular cells if the GFR decreases?
They will secrete renin
When renin is secreted what happens to the blood pressure and the GFR?
It increases
What is the plasma protein made by the liver?
Angiotensinogen
What is the enzyme that converts Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I?
Angiotensin I
What is the enzyme that converts Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II?
the angiotensin converting enzyme
After Angiotensin II binds to the efferent arteriole what does it cause the arteriole to do and what is happens to the GFR?
vasoconstrict; increases
When Angiotensin II binds to the efferent arteriole, what is released and from where?
aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
When aldosterone is released, what happens to the GFR?
increases
If GFR increases becauses of aldosterone being secreted what is happening to Na and K?
Na increases in reabsorbtion and K increases in secretion
Where would the location of the AT1 receptor be?
on the efferent arteriole
What renal disorder is defined as inflammation of the kidsneys due to a bacterial infection?
Pyelonephritis
What are the causes of Pyelonephritis?
catheterization and congenital weakness at the bladder-ureter junction
Why does Pyelonephritis occur more often in females?
The female urethra is much shorter than males; and males have antimicrobial secretions which come from the prostate
What are two types of fecal flora that can cause contamination in the urinary tract?
Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis
What is the treatment for E.coli in the urinary tract?
nalidixic acid
What is the treatment for E.faecalis in the urinary tract?
ampicillin or Penicillin G
What disorder is defined as sudden interruption of renal function?
acute renal failure
What are the (3) possible origins in acute renal failure?
prerenal failure, intrarenal failure, postrenal failure
What are the causes of prerenal failure?
blood flow to the kidney is diminished (due to cardiogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, dehydration, and diuretic overuse) which will decrease blood flow/oxygen to the renal tissue.
What conditions can rapidly and irreversibly damage kidney tissue?
Hypoxemia and ischemia
What are the causes of intrarenal failure?
damage to the nephron in the kidney due to nephrotoxins (Mg, Pb, insecticides), tubular necrosis, intratubular obstruction, and/or poorly treated pre-renal failure
What is the most common cause of postrenal failure?
kidney stones
What are kidney stones made up of?
Ca, uric acid, cystene, and crystalized amino acids
What is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor what will decrease H and HCO3 that treats mild acute renal failure?
Methazolamide
What medicine is treated as a diuretic to treat mild acute renal disease?
Osmitrol
What does a diuretic do to urine output?
increases urine output by increases tubular osmotic pressure which keeps solutes in tubules and water follows releasing more fluids.
If you have a lot of protein in your urine then do you have a low or high pH?
low
When you have retention of water, a major physiologic effect of acute renal failute is what?
Hypertension
When you have retention of metabolic wastes, a major physiologic effect of acute renal failute is what?
toxemia or metabolic acidosis (pH is too low)
When you have retention of electrolytes, a major physiologic effect of ARF is what?
hyperkalemia
What happens in a state of hyperkalemia?
K+ will hyperpolarize excitable cells making it hard to generate AP's leading to muscle paralysis & inability of nervous tissue to generate AP's.
ARF can be fatal within 8-14 days if complete ______ occurs?
anuria
What is the treatment of a severe case of ARF?
dialysis
What is the hormone that regulates BP?
renin