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9 Cards in this Set

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Define Azotemia.
What % of renal disfunction causes this?
increased BUN +/- CREATININE
75% of renal function is lost before BUN and CREATININE increase
What is prerenal azotemia?
What are causes of prerenal azotemia?
Prerenal: normal specific gravity
CZS: Increased PROTEIN CATABOLISM d/t FUNCHIPS - Fever, Urea, Necrosis, Corticosteroids, Infxn, Prolonged exercise, Starvation OR Decreased RENAL PERFUSION d/t dehydration, shock, cardiac dz
FUNCHIPS
DDX for impaired urine concentrating ability (#8)
Diabetes insipidus, hyperadrenocort, hyperthyroid, hyperCa++, hypoK+, psychogenic PD, hepatic failure, pyometra
What is a normal UP:C ratio?
Creatinine is constantly excreted, so UPC helps you evaluate protein loss. Normal <0.5 (>1.0 is a problem!)
Causes of proteinuria
Strenuous exercise, extreme heat/cold, stress, fever; overload (Ig, Mgb, Hgb);
+ leuks = inflammation,
+ rbcs = hemorrhage,
+ inc casts = tubular/glomerular damage
Bilirubinuria in dogs?
Dogs have a low renal threshold for BILI so if their urine is mod-mkd concentrated they can show trace to 1+ Bili (normally).
What would cause a positive result in the blood or Hgb strip on a U/A dipstick?
RBCs: hemorrhage or UTI
Hgb: intravascular hemolysis, UTI
Mgb: muscle necrosis
What is the significance of hyperphosphatemia when seen w/ azotemia?
hyperphosphatemia is caused by decreased glomerular clearance (it's common to see in renal failure).
What's the significance of GGT in the urine?
it indicates injury to tubular epithelial cells. Main use is to predict aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity.