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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics?
Inhibit Na+ reabsorption in the early distal tubule by blocking the NaCl cotransporter. Also, decreases Ca++ excretion.
Name 4 uses for thiazide diuretics.
1) HTN
2) CHF
3) hypercalciuria
4) nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Name 8 possible side effects of thiazide diuretics.
1) hypokalemia
2) metabolic alkalosis
3) hyponatremia

4) hyper Glycemia
5) hyper Lipidemia
6) hyper Uricemia
7) hyper Calcemia

8) Sulfa allergy
Captopril, Enalapril and Lisinipril are examples of...
ACE inhibitors
What are some benefits of thiazide use over other diuretics?
relatively cheap yet effective at low doses and relatively few side effects in most people
What is the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors?
1) Acts in the lungs to block the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme, the enzyme which converts angiotensin I (ATI) into ATII.

2) Prevents inactivation of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator.

NOTE: Renin release will be increased due to the loss of negative feedback from ATII.
Name 3 clinical uses for ACE inhibitors.
1) HTN
2) CHF
3) diabetic renal disease (decrease proteinuria)
Name 10 possible side effects of ACE inhibitors.
1) Cough
2) Angioedema
3) Proteinuria
4) Taste change
5) hypOtension
6) Pregnancy problems (damage to fetal kidney)
7) Rash
8) Increased renin
9) Lower ATII

10) hyperkalemia
Name 2 contraindications for ACE inhibitor use.
1) pregnancy (damage to fetal kidney)
2) bilateral renal artery stenosis
What class of drugs does Losartan belong to.
Angiotensin II Receptor antagonist.
Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride and Eplereone belong to which category of drugs?
K+-Sparing Diuretics
What is the mechanism of action of spironolactone and eplereone?
Antagonists of cytoplasmic minerlocorticoid (aldosterone) receptors in cells of the cortical collecting duct.
What is the mechanism of action of triamterene and amiloride?
Block Na+ channels in the cortical collecting tubule and hence block Na+ reabsorption.
Name 3 clinical uses for the K+ sparing diuretics.
1) Hypraldosteronism
2) K+ depletion
3) CHF
Name potential side effects of spironolactone.
1) gynecomastia
2) antiandrogen effects
3) hyperkalemia
What effect will diuretics have on urine NaCl?
increased by all diuretics (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, thiazides, K+-sparing diuretics)
What effect will diuretics have on urine K+
all diuretics will increase except for K+-sparing diuretics (e.g. spironolactone, eplereone, triamterene, amiloride)
What effect will diuretics have on blood pH?
1) decreased (acidifeid) by:
- K+-sparing diuretics
- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

2) increased (alkalinized) by:
- loop diuretics
- thiazide diuretics

(hypkalemic contraction alkalosis)
What effect do diuretics have on urine Ca++?
1) increased by: loop diuretics

2) decreased by: thiazides
Acetazolamide belongs to which class of drugs?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors