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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The organs of the urinary system are:
kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
What is the function of the kidney
adjust solute and water concentration
What is the function of the ureters
a muscular tube that leads from the renal pelvis to the bladder, conduit for formed urine,
What is the fx of the bladder?
a muscular sac on the pelvic floor that distends and expands.
What are the primary functions of the urinary system?
they are to regulate blood pressure, and the chemical make up of blood
What are the secondary functions of of the urinary system?
metabolism of Vitamin D, production of renin and erythropoeitin, and gluconeogensis
What is gluconeogenesis?
glocuse production from non-carbohydrate precursurs (amino acids, fatty acids.)
Where are the kidneys located?
retroperitoneally in the superior lumbar region
What is the size of a kidney?
it resembles a large bar of soap
Which kidney is higher? The right or the left?
the right kidney lies lower than the left, because it is crowded by the liver.
What is the space within the renal sinus filled with?
the ureter, blood vessels, lyphatics and nerves
What is sitting atop each kidney?
the adrenal glands.
name the three layers of the supportive tissue around each kidney
renal capsule, adipose capsule, and renal fascia.
Renal capsule:
a fibrous transparent structure that sticks directly to the kidneys surface
What is the adipose capsule?
fatty mass that attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall and provides cushion.
What is the renal fascia?
the outer layer of dense fibrous CT that anchors the kidney and adrenal gland to surrounding structures.
What are the 3 distinct layers of the kidney?
the cortex, medulla and pelvis
What is the most superficial region of the kidney? And what is its function?
it is the renal cortex, and urine formation occurs here.
What is the layer underneath the cortex? And what is it comprised of?
the renal medulla, and it is comprised of renal pyramids.
What constitutes a lobe of the kidney?
one single renal pyramid, and its cortical tissue.
Trace the flow of urine…
Urine formed in the renal cortex --> then travels through collecting ducts of the renal medulla --> then drips out renal papillae ---> into minor calyces --> major calyces --> into the renal pelvis ---> ureters --> Urinary bladder ---> exits through the urethra.
What kind if muscle allows the flow of urine?
smooth muscle
What is a nephron? What are its components and functions?
a nephron is the most basic functional unit of the kidney. It is comprised of the glomerulus, bowmans capsule, and tubules. Its function is glomerular ultrafiltration, and tubular reabsorbtion and secretion.
What is the Glomerulus?
Also known as the renal corpuscle, it receives blood from afferent arterioles, and is drained by efferent afterioles. Its primary function is filtration. (delivers ultrafiltrate of plasma
What are the components of the Glomerular filatration barrier?
1.) the glomerular endothelial cell 2.) the glomerular basment membrane 3.) urinary epithelial cell
What does the glomerular filtration barrier do?
it allows the free entry of water, and small solutes into the glomerulus. It also stops entry of cells and proteins.
What is are other names for the Proximal Tubule?
renal tubule, and proximal convoluted tubule
What fraction of ultrafiltrate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
What type of epithelium is located in the proximal tubule?
simple cuboidal
What are the ions reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tube?
ions reabsorbed are sodium, clioride, bicarbonate, water, and calcium, amino acids, phosphate and glucose…
What is the primary function of the proximal convulted tubule?
reabsorbtion,… but it also secretes.
What is secreted by the proximal distal tubule?
Hydrogen ions are secreted inot the lumen along with organic acid and drugs
What happens if there is a change in volume of ECF in the proximal tubule?
Changes in extracellular fluid will result in a change in the rate of reabsorbtion. It ends up delivering more or less isotonic fluid to other parts of the nephron. For example: an alteration of salt and water reabsorbtion in the loop of Henle.
Give another name for the Loops of Henle.
Nephron Loop
What is the thin decending loop permeable to?
it is freely permeable to water only.
What is the ascending loop permeable to?
the ascending thick loops is inpermeable to H20
What is the main function of the Loop of Henle?
reabsorbtion of water and calcium and secretion.
What is the main function of the Distal Convoluted Tubule?
reabsorbtion, secretion and excretion. (20% of this is water and 10% is salts of filtrate)
What kind of epithelium is found in the Distal Convoluted Tubule?
simple cuboidal, but with no microvilli
What hormones regulate the distal convoluted tubule?
Aldosterone (increases sodium reabsorbtion) and ANF (atrial nuritic factor - which regulates sodium excretion.)
What does parathyroid hormone stimulate?
it increases Calcium reabsorbtion
What is the function, location and cellular composition of JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus)?
it is located next to the afferent and efferent arterioles. It regulates the pressure and entrance of blood flow. And consists of 3 cells: macula densa and granula cells.
What are the two intrinsic mechanisms of maintaining Glomerular filtration rate?
myogenic regulation and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
What happens in myogenic regulation?
attempts to maintain a constant filtration pressure. Therefore if BP drops, the efferent constricts and BP is increases within the glomerulus. If BP increases, then the efferent arteriole dilates resulting in a decrease of glomerular BP.
What do baroreceptors do?
baroreceptor cells help sense changes in pressure and react accordingly.
What happens in tubuglomerular feedback mechanism?
High sodium concentraton in the Distal convoluted tubule indicates a high Glomerular filtration ---- thus, Low Na+ indicates Low GFR (slow)
If GFR is high, what do the macula densa cells do?
it increases the release of vasoconstrictor - which acts on the afferent afteriole. This reduces glomerular blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate.
If GFR is low, what do the macula densa cells do?
it releases less vasoconstrictor, which causes the afferent afteriole to dilate. This results in an increase of glomerular blood pressure and filtration rate
What are the two extrinsic mechanisms that affect Glomerular filtration rate?
the two mechanisms are sympathetic neural mechanism and the renin-angiotensin mechanism - both of these decrease glomerular filtration rate to help maintain sufficient systemic blood pressure.
What happens in sympathetic neural mechanism?
when sympathetic nervous system activity increases, norephinephrine and epinephrine both act to constrict the afferent arteriole.resulting in a lower blood pressure
What happens in the renin-angiotensin mechanism?
JGA releases renin when Blood pressure drops (measured by the stretch of the afferent arteriole.) When renin is released, it cleaves angiotensin I, and Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II by the Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).
What is Angiotensin II and what does it do?
it is a vacoconstrictor that increases systemic blood volume and blood pressure. *stimulates thirst, and triggers the release of ADH
What does ADH (antidiuretic Hormone do?
it stimulates reabsorbtion of water in the distal convoluted tubule.
What does aldosterone do?
it reduces sodium ion loss in urine, therefore reducing water loss (Wherever sodium goes, water will follow)
How many ml/min is the renal blood flow to the kidneys?
1,200 (represents 20% of cardiac output)
How many ml/min is the renal plasma to the kidneys?
660 ml/min.
Equation for Blood Volume?
Blood volume = Plasma volume (55%) + Blood Cell Volume (45%) [hematocrit]
What is the normal glomerular filtration rate?
125 ml/min. - the rate at which blood filtrate is flowing from glomerular capillaries into Bowmans capsule.
Filtration Fraction
125 ml/min over 625 ml/min = 0.20
Rememeber : There is an inverse relationship between renal plasma and plasma oncotic pressure. Therefore,
an increase in renal plasma will cause a decrease in the plasma oncotic pressure
What is glomerular hydrostatic pressure?
it is the blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries.
What is the driving force of water reabsorbtion?
a high osmolarity (concentration) of extracellular fluid that is generated by NaCl and urea
in the afferent arteriole, if Renal Blood Flow and GFR are increased, then Resistance is?
In the afferent arteriole, if Renal Blood Flow and GFR are decreased then Resistance is?
In the efferent arteriole, if extracellular resistance is decreased, then
Renal Blood Flow is increased, and glomerular filtration rate is decreased. Filtration Fraction is <20%
In the efferent arteriole, if extracellular resistance is increased, then…
Renal Blood Flow is decreased, and glomerular filtration rate is increased. Filtration fraction is >20%